Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Analysis of Christian Boltanski and Roni Horn Free Online Research Papers Christian Boltanski and Roni Horn are two contemporary artists who use photography as a means to an end. If asked Boltanski would probably shrug off the notion that he is a photographer let alone someone who even cares how a camera works. Horn would probably react the same way, insisting that she is more interested in drawing on paper than processing film. Never the less these two artist have used the medium of photography as a way to transcend their ideas of what it is to be human in a post modern age. Through the lens of the camera they question ideas of identity, memory, place, the present and the past. Although they share the same apathy towards photography, their perception of how the photographic images works as an object are completely different. Here, I will explore the similarities and difference between two specific bodies of work from the two artists: Ã¢â¬Å"MenshclickÃ¢â¬ from Boltanski and Ã¢â¬Å"You Are the WeatherÃ¢â¬ from Horn. With the use of portraiture, these two projects look into the heart of humanity and find something dark and grim but also something tender and loving. Christian Boltanski no doubt draws his inspiration from his experiences as child. His father was Jewish of Ukrainian decent and his mother was from Corsica. He was born during WWII and he his family spent the better part of the war hiding from Nazis. Themes of childhood memory and death permeate most, if not all, of his works. He was once quoted as saying, Ã¢â¬Å"I began to work as an artist when I began to be an adult, when I understood that my childhood was finished, and was dead. I think we all have somebody who is dead inside of us. A dead child. I remember the Little Christian that is dead inside me. For Christian Boltanski every photograph is a little death. For him photography is a medium that undeniably ties together the acts of dieing and remembering. Like trying to preserve a butterfly under glass, it most first be killed in order for it last forever. Most would consider this kind of talk morbid and depressing, but this is the crux of BoltanskiÃ¢â¬â¢s vision. He sees death as a form of enlightenment. For him, it is a way of putting our existence into perspective, a way of establishing our humanity and defining the only true common human experience. Death binds us and pulls us apart. In BoltanskiÃ¢â¬â¢s installation entitled Menschlick (Humanity) 1995 , he explores the common traits in humans that go beyond skin colors, religions, or nationalities. His search is one of the human condition. In this piece Boltanski is looking for the common denominator in an ocean of numbers, and those numbers add up to about 1,300 photographs. This installation was composed of photographs from BoltanskiÃ¢â¬â¢s extensive archive. All of them were acquired from newspaper obituaries, journals, magazines and other ephemeral sources. All of the images were also previously used in other installations. For example Menschlick is populated with dead people from Switzerland, which he used in an installation called Ã¢â¬ËThe Dead SwissÃ¢â¬â¢. Boltanski chose the Swiss because he believes they are the embodiment of happiness and neutrality. For Boltanski they represented a kind of universality. For him, the Swiss are what everyone wants to become. But with that said the artist also included a wide array of Ã¢â¬ËotherÃ¢â¬â¢ people. Aside from including dead Swiss, Boltanski also incorporated Spanish killers, murderers, French victims, casualties of war, Nazi, Jews and members of the Mickey Mouse Club. The images are 15.7Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ x 15.7Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ silver gelatin prints in simple black-bordered frames behind glass. He mixed all of the photographs into one group to strip them of their individual identities. They are all just faces now, tightly cropped and hung on a wall one inch away from each other creating a new context for their existance. The work is install in a way that completely over-takes the viewer and forces the only undeniable fact; all of the images are of humans. The viewer cannot escape the maze of faces and one cannot differentiate between the good people and the bad people. Boltanski has done this to make the point that the same person that saves your life today has the ability to murder you tomorrow. With Menschlick he is delving into the human animal and stating that in our hearts w e are neither good nor bad but instead we are beings that act and react within given circumstances. Each photograph in the installation is a representation of someone that is dead or is going to die. Yet we can look into their dark eyes and see of our loved ones, ourselves. This confrontation with Death in the face of a stranger is the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s precise intention. Christian Boltanski wants us to remember that, Ã¢â¬Ëthe fact of dying is inside the fact of living.Ã¢â¬â¢ By comparisons Roni Horn uses the tightly cropped portrait as a landscape for finding life within a persons face, not death. The eyes of her subject act as a window to the human soul not as an abyss leading into oblivion. HornÃ¢â¬â¢s photographic installation entitled, You Are the Weather (1994-95) is a four-wall installation of 100 photographs (36 silver-gelatin and 64 chromogenic prints). There are 17 fixed sequences that are installed in a flexible order all hung at eye level. Through the photographs the viewer can trace HornÃ¢â¬â¢s exploration unfold, as a woman looks deep into her cameraÃ¢â¬â¢s lens to reveal something beautiful and incorporeal. For this body of work Horn and her model Margret traveled through Iceland visiting geothermal pools and hot springs for a six-week period. At each site the model submerged herself up to her neck in the water as Horn makes picture after picture of her face. The portraits are monotone, warm and quite. They reveal the artists perseverance in her exploration of the subtle changes in the modelÃ¢â¬â¢s face. At each location and in-between each frame, something changes. There is a slight shifting of the cameraÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view and an even more subtle shift of emotion in Margret. Is she reacting to Horn or is she reacting to the temperature of the pool? More over is she now reacting to Ã¢â¬ËyouÃ¢â¬â¢, the viewer of the photograph? Horn has transformed a human face into a barometer for emotion. The repetition of the woman model represents the constant. It is the unchanging variable that allows the true essence of the piece to emerge. Roni Horn is looking for the tenderness of humanity in MargretÃ¢â¬â¢s face. Those small almost unnoticeable traces of curiousity and love take you deeper into her expression. There exists sensuality in her gaze that holds the viewer as it reminds us of how a lover might look back at you. The stare is subjective and welcoming and yet at times is seems frustrated and confused. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the kind of communication that is purely visual like the way a newborn baby studies the expression of its mother, watching and mimicking her love. There exist many similarities between Boltanski and HornÃ¢â¬â¢s pieces. For example as artists they are both playing the role of pseudo-scientist in the organization of the images in Menschlick and You Are the Weather. Also there are parallels in the way they installed these works too. Formally the use of the close-cropped portrait and emphasis on the face as a catalyst for emotional response is clear. In addition, their use of many photographs in close proximity of each other strategically emphasizes the idea of a collection or archive. However, many there are many more conceptual differences between Menschlick and You Are the Weather then there are formal similarities. Conceptually these two artist are both exploring humanity as a whole but their modes and intentions are very different. Boltanski for instance does not make new pictures but rather gives new life to existing imagery. In this way he not perpetuating the Ã¢â¬Ëlittle deathsÃ¢â¬â¢ that occur when a photograph is taken and instead is creating a memorial for the ones who have died. This evidence of death is further illustrated in the way Boltanski prints some of his images out of focus, removing the detail of their faces and turning them into ghosts. By contrast Horn is actively making new images and is somewhat in control of the condition in which they are being created. In Menschlick Christian Boltanski is exploring the dark world of death itself and going to places even more frightening, the past. The people in his photographs once existed, but the photograph itself tells us nothing about them. Boltanski suggests that who they were as people is irrelevant to the fact that they were humans. To him to be human is not singular but is in fact a collective experience. The individual lives of each one of his faces are trumped by death itself, because death consumes all in the end. And when that end comes all that is left is an image of a person but never the person. Dissimilarly, Roni Horn is looking for life not death in her pictures of Margret. Her choice to only use one model gives reference to the time in one personÃ¢â¬â¢s life, further placing You Are the Weather in the present rather than in the past like Menschlick. HornÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of the number of images for the installation, 100, also refers to life expectancy. By human standards to live to be a hundred is considered to be close to the maximum amount of year a human has the potential to live. Moreover HornÃ¢â¬â¢s search in the human face is geared more towards the qualities that make us alive. In MargretÃ¢â¬â¢s face she finds tenderness and compassion. These images are clear and warm, and invite the viewer to stare back. Both Boltanski and Horn what to evoke a visceral response from their works, but what is truly remarkable is how these responses are polar opposites of each other. Whether or not the viewer likes one piece over the other is irrelevant to the fact that these two artists are exploring different sides of the some coin. As ancient as night and day or stories of Darkness and the Light, Menschlick and You Are the Weather both reflect traits that all of humanity shares. 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Saturday, November 23, 2019
A Cigarette Butt is One ThingÃ¢â¬ ¦ A Cigarette Butt is One Thing A Cigarette Butt is One Thing By Maeve Maddox In standard English usage, the word butt has numerous meanings as both a noun and a verb. The OED offers 14 entries for butt as a noun. The meanings vary from Ã¢â¬Å"barrelÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"a type of one-horse cart.Ã¢â¬ Perhaps the most common definition is a. The thicker end of anything, esp. of a tool or weapon, the part by which it is held or on which it rests; e.g. the lower end of a spear-shaft, whip-handle, fishing-rod, the broad end of the stock of a gun or pistol. Butt meaning Ã¢â¬Å"barrelÃ¢â¬ gives us the expression to be the butt of a joke. This use stems from the custom of setting up archery targets on barrels. The butt of a joke is the target of a joke. The meaning Ã¢â¬Å"remainder of a smoked cigaretteÃ¢â¬ was first recorded in 1847. The sense of Ã¢â¬Å"human posteriorÃ¢â¬ has been in use from 1450, but ancient use does not necessarily confer acceptability in standard speech. To my ears, butt as a word for the human posterior is for informal use, more or less on a par with bitch as used by some speakers as a generic term for Ã¢â¬Å"woman.Ã¢â¬ ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why I was startled to hear it used in a television commercial the other night: Better legs and better butt with every step. To my ears the ads that use this phrase are more offensive than the ones with the baby bear who canÃ¢â¬â¢t wipe his bottom without leaving behind scraps of toilet paper. At least those ads use the word Ã¢â¬Å"bottomÃ¢â¬ for the anatomical area under discussion. In mulling over my reaction to this use of Ã¢â¬Å"buttÃ¢â¬ in an ad intended to be aired in every living room in America, I reviewed the many expressions in English that can be used to refer to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s backside. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve probably used them all at one time or another, but not indiscriminately. Some words for the human posterior seem to me to be acceptable in ordinary speech, no matter who is present. For example, rear backside bottom seat behind derriÃ ¨re posterior Some IÃ¢â¬â¢d use only if I felt some irritation with the person whose anatomy was being referred to. For example, butt hind end tail rump keister bum fanny (Caution: this one does NOT refer to the same bit of anatomy in British English as it does in American English.) ass (arse in British usage) Some words IÃ¢â¬â¢d reserve for moments of jocularity or perversity: buttocks cheeks booty tush buns heinie caboose fundament haunches gluteus maximus As a copywriter I might use Ã¢â¬Å"buttÃ¢â¬ in an ad to be placed in a specialized publication read by young people, but not for one intended to be run during national television prime time. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a generational thing, IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure. I hear plenty of young people use it as if it were perfectly acceptable in polite company. Still, advertisers might think twice about using it in ads intended for a general audience. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:12 Greek Words You Should KnowDawned vs. DonnedCapitalizing Titles of People and Groups
Thursday, November 21, 2019
U09d1 Sarah and Michael Case Study - Essay Example s good, there is a conflict on interest in the case as the couple have already decided how they would prefer to spend their last days and it is a personal will rather than one forced by others. It is also clear by law that an individual has the rights to make a decision for how they aim to spend their last few days. This is one of the few issues that have been presented in the case. Secondly, the end Ã¢â¬â of Ã¢â¬â life directive enables the medical assistance to discuss the wish of the parents with the children. This however is a major issue as the cases are generally very sensitive and discussing this with the children can prove to be very difficult. This is mainly because the amount of stress, trauma and emotional distress that children and family members go through when an elderly person is ill is very high. Hence it would be difficult for the health care providers to convey the news as well as the family members to hear the news of the will of the parents. This again causes a second of ethics in the case (Garrett, Baillie, & Garrett, 2009). Considering the end of life decision in my life or for someone I know, I feel that it is incorrect to allow anyone to take the decision to end the life of others. This is inappropriate and is completely inhuman. A person should be given the right to live as long as they can and as long as their body is able to accept the life. Using technology to keep a person alive or trying to kill a person against the flow of nature is not right and should not be accepted anywhere in the world. Life is given to all and mercy killing is not ethical in any manner and should not be permitted. Giving an end Ã¢â¬â of Ã¢â¬â life decision for someone irrespective of whether it is a mother or father of brother or sister is incorrect and is against the law of nature. Hence it is essential that this is not provided as an option ever as according to the ACA code of Ethics it has clearly been presented that, Ã¢â¬Ëcounsellors must strive to take measures
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Analyse the Hamidian era from the perspective of economic change, and explain the ways in which the agenda of the Hamidian state - Essay Example However, there always was a distinction between different dynasties and SultanÃ¢â¬â¢s in the way of political agendas over the different historical eras. Thesis statement: When we talk about Hamidian Era, this makes specific reference to Sultan Abdul amid II's period of rule during the 2nd half of the 19th century and early 20th century; specifically 1876-1909. Nevertheless, the era was characterized with various aspects in terms of economic performance and political leadership. How was economic performance related to the political governance of the era? How did the economic challenges that were experienced in the era influence Sultan Abdul amid II's political agenda? Discussion This paper intends to present an analysis of the Hamidian state during the Hamidian era in economic change perspective. Despite the commendable organization of the state during the reign of Sultan Abdul amid II, economic forces shook the state greatly. Economic forces such as foreign creditorÃ¢â¬â¢s debts and losing some regions to other imperial powers characterized the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s governance. It is these forces and effects that this paper intends to analyze in the perspective of altering the SultanÃ¢â¬â¢s political agenda. The paper will outline in details the economic pressures faced. An analysis of the political agenda of the empire will follow. The influence of these economic forces to the political agenda of the Sultan will then follow. In the efforts to destroy or abolish past legitimating crises that had engulfed the empire, on ascension to power, Sultan Abdul amid II adopted centralization system of governance. As the sole way to reform and save the entire empire from the sub sequential topple by the imperial colonies, Abdul amid II chose to ignore the reform calls by the westerners to implement their proposal. He established and imposed pan Islam policy whose main aim was to safeguard the interests of the Muslim culture in the empire against the invasion and corruptio n by other cultures. He advanced the segregation of other people on the basis of religion through supporting the Muslim religion against the Ã¢â¬ËothersÃ¢â¬â¢. The otto9man identity was a creation of modernization. Through this creation, the sovereigns appeared superior to their counterpart non-sovereigns. Religion identity was a critical aspect of association in the era of Hamidian. His policies were thus seen to be far from modernity; well interpreted to represent nationalism which instead of acknowledging individual identity, it concentrates with group. This was evident in his advocacy for Muslim protection and support. The Kurd people became beneficially of the same as unlike the case with other tribes who were easily overlooked on the grounds of religion, the Kurds were well integrated in the empire by the virtue of Muslim brotherhood (Yokmac, 2012, para 1-15). Economic challenges: The nineteenth century marked a historic time to the Ottoman Empire through which so much of the future shaping of the empire would rely. Despite the strength that the empire exhibited in the previous era, the empire started by slowly weakening in terms of political power, her territorial region in North Africa and in Europe. The political influence of the empire had been shaken by the dependency that had resulted by the poor economic performance that the empire had sailed through. Many of the policies that the previous governments had adopted proved unworkable. This necessitated engaging
Sunday, November 17, 2019
The Taming of the Shrew Essay Act IV begins by starting the taming process. Petruchio leaves Katherine outside the house in the rain and cold while he sits down pretending he has forgotten about her until she starts to knock on the door repeatedly. The next few days in Petruchios household are the continuation of the taming process by keeping Katherine from eating or sleeping, pretending that he loves her so much he cannot allow her to eat his inferior food or sleep in his poorly made bed. Tis burnt, and so is all the meat. While studying the Taming of The Shrew I have watched two film productions, read the book, and also viewed a production at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford, this has allowed me to gain lots of viewpoints about the play and how they all complement each other. I enjoyed Act IV the most for many reasons. There is lots of action and more violence than the other acts, which makes it stand out. There are also a lot of subtle lines and going ons that make you think hard about the actions and how they are contributing to the whole play. At the beginning of the Act Petruchio constantly verbally and physically abuses the servants in front of Katherine to show off and prove he has power, she tries to stick up for them and protect them but Petruchio does not allow this. I believe that this livens up the play as the taming process has begun. Petruchio was striking and shouting at the servants for a purpose, directed at Kate, as she tries to protect them she realises that she has stopped thinking only about herself and begins to feel for the others. Another amusing aspect of the Act was when Lucentio needed a father so that his marriage can go through. He came across an old man and told him a story of how their two towns hated each other and if someone found out about him, he would be killed. It was risky but also a bit stupid of the man to accept. In this Act but there is one scene that is especially comical. Petruchio continuing the taming process begins to tease Katherine with new clothes. He introduces a tailor and a haberdasher who both present the most stylish of clothing, which Katherine loves immediately, however Petruchio realising this, disapproves of everything saying it is not fit for her and is poorly made. He starts ruining the clothes and ordering the men to leave. Katherine however picks up a hat and puts it on and she wants it so much, All gentle women on the streets wear such a beautiful piece of clothing However immediately Petruchio replies When you are gentle, you shall have one too, and not till then. This is obvious without any subtlety. It hits you in the face and points out to Katherine what Petruchio is trying to do. However amongst all the humour and action surrounding the Act at the moment there comes a point in the Act where all of this seems to disappear. All of scene IV is rather lifeless and fails to entertain the audience as previous scenes had. It becomes more serious and I think rather loses the attention of the audience and distracts their attention away from the play.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
In the article Ã¢â¬Å"In praise of the Ã¢â¬Å"FÃ¢â¬ WordÃ¢â¬ Mary Sherry discusses the Ã¢â¬Å"FÃ¢â¬ word, which means failure. Basically Mary Sherry stated that the kids of today are getting cheated out of a good education. They are passing through the school system because some are good kids and they do not create any problems in the classroom. But, at the same time employers are also being cheated because they expect graduates to have the basic skills. She also stated that Diplomas are considered meaningless because most of these kids who were awarded one could not read or write properly and therefore, they are back in night school along with adults who are trying to get their G.E.D. Mary Sherry teaches an evening class and came to the conclusion that kids are being cheated when she asked them to write about an unpleasant experience in school. They all wrote something negative, they were crying out for help. It was also indicated that the teachers should have been more forceful in using the Ã¢â¬Å"FÃ¢â¬ word. Instead, these kids are now very angry and resentful for being passed along. It was also noted that your environment should not be an issue because most kids do not take school seriously and the teachers should have been more forceful with the Ã¢â¬Å"FÃ¢â¬ word. This also causes the employers to be cheated out of what they expect from their employees. Employers are also being cheated because the teachers fail to do their job right. For example, if a student went to school to be a nurse and is passed because he or she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t disrupt class and was a good student this cause them to get a diploma. However, when they get into the real world they cannot deliver what is expected of them and can also be very costly for the employers. Therefore, the employer has no choice but to rehire and retrain. If the teacher were using the Ã¢â¬Å"FÃ¢â¬ word then the student would take the class more seriously and realize that their future is at stake. Finally, Mary Stated that Many people can rise above any situation if they are motivated, encouraged and knowing that they have something at stake to loose.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The purpose of this paper is to show that while Ernst Mach and Bertrand Russell share similar views on matter and knowledge, their end conclusions differ. Mach believes humans think in an economical manner where past experiences and knowledge are systematically reorganized to fit a pattern (Mach 211). Rather than analysing each experience in detail, humans refer to similar or related experiences as groups, which allows for the Ã¢â¬Å"least expenditure of thoughtÃ¢â¬ (Mach 197). In line with this mentality springs the concept of Ã¢â¬ËthingsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËbodiesÃ¢â¬â¢. Mach states that colours, sounds, temperatures, etc. re called sensations (Mach 208-209). When certain sensations are present repeatedly, they would fit into a pattern. To allow for future reference on this knowledge within the mind, the pattern receives a label. An example would be when a person sees an orange, bouncy, sphere object which has a mildly rough texture, the label Ã¢â¬ËbasketballÃ¢â¬â¢ spring s to mind. The Ã¢â¬ËbasketballÃ¢â¬â¢ would not be a physical object; it would simply be a Ã¢â¬Å"mental symbolÃ¢â¬ for the sensations and Mach states that Ã¢â¬Å"symbols do not exist outside of thoughtÃ¢â¬ (Mach 201). Russell believes that certain things, such as a table or a cat, consist of sense-data hich are colours, sounds, smells, etc. and that the immediate awareness of such things is known as a sensation (Russell 12). Also, the existence of an object is not necessarily associated with the sense-data as different people receive different sense-data when they are under the belief that they are viewing the same object (Russell 20). In addition, a person would only know the certainty of perceived sense-data rather than of the object since sense-data depends on the perception and relation of the object to the perceiver (Russell 16). Russell then states that although there is no proof of a physical world, the belief that there are objects corresponding to sense-data allows for the simplification peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences. Therefore, believing in an external world is easier than thinking otherwise. Both Mach and Russell believe in the perception of colours, sounds, etc. but they label them differently; Mach calls them sensations and Russell calls them sense-data. Also, neither doubts the existence of these perceptions as they reside within the mind. Mach does not call into question the experience of sensations and Russell states that there is no doubt for the existence of sense-data (Russell 18). This indicates that both believe in physical causes that create such perceptions, but not necessarily believe in the existence of physical objects. In addition, both regard human knowledge to be built up from instinctive beliefs and the economic categorization of these beliefs form the basis of science and an organization of information (Mach 191; Russell 25). The two philosophers differ in views when regarding the existence of the physical world. Mach states that the idea of substance is a Ã¢â¬Å"crude notionÃ¢â¬ and that Ã¢â¬Å"bodies or thingsÃ¢â¬ do not exist in the external world (Mach 201, 203). In contrast, Russell asserts that it is instinctive belief to believe in an Ã¢â¬Å"independent external worldÃ¢â¬ and since this belief Ã¢â¬Å"does not lead to any difficultiesÃ¢â¬ , there is no reason to reject the belief (Russell 24). MachÃ¢â¬â¢s overall view seems more sceptical relative to Russell since, even though he mentions that humans can easily believe that things other than sensations exist outside of thought, with no proof, he considers objects to be merely labels which only reside within the mind. This may be due to the reasoning that solid justification should support a notion for it to be a valid belief. Mach regards science in a negative light as he states it uses Ã¢â¬Å"lavish extravaganceÃ¢â¬ and comments that, in the form of personification that Ã¢â¬Å"she needs [no] justification of her aimsÃ¢â¬ (Mach 189). Russell, on the other hand, seems to believe that questioning the existence of the physical world and objects within it to be a difficult task and in turn states that believing such a simple, systematic notion of an external world would be a better solution. When he cites DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ systematic method of doubt to be an attempt to deny the existence of everything but oneself, he inquires on the firmness of the theory in regards to Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËI think, therefore I amÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬Å"(Russell 19). By addressing a strong theory that questions the existence of everything, then indicating the flaws within the theory, Russell demonstrates the difficulty in creating a sound theory which denies the physical world. Almost similar in DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ perspective in the belief of the existence of an Evil Genius, Russell takes the position that if there is no proof denying the existence of a physical world then the possibility of it allows for belief in physical objects and an external world (Russell 24-25). In conclusion, Mach and Russell have similarities in their theories, but their overall views greatly differ. Mach and RussellÃ¢â¬â¢s view on perceptions such as colour, sound, etc. are similar, although each has different labels for the ideas: sensations and sense-data, respectively. In addition, both believe in the simplicity or economy of knowledge. The philosophers then differ in the belief of an external world, where Mach denies the existence of physical objects, where Russell believes in such a notion. RussellÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance of an external world seems more in line with the economical nature of knowledge as understanding the idea of an external world is easier and allows for better explanations for perceptions of colour, sound, etc. Both philosophers have sound theories but neither has evidence where anything is absolutely certain and as such the study of philosophy continues to address doubts which revolve around our reality. Works Cited Mach, Ernst. Popular Scientific Lectures. Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Company, 1898. Russell, Bertrand. The Problems of Philosophy. London: Oxford University Press, 1912.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Refer to the sets of the aggregate demand, short-run aggregate supply, and long-run aggregate supply curves. Use the graphs to explain the process and steps by which each of the following economic scenarios will shift the economy from one long-run macroeconomic equilibrium to another equilibrium. Under each scenario, elaborate the short-run and long-run effects of the shifts in the aggregate demand and aggregate supply curves on the aggregate price level and aggregate output (real GDP). Suppose the household wealth decreases due to a decline in the stock market asset prices (See the set of graphs below and pay attention to the 3-stage shifts in graphs). Answer: In graph one the decline in the stock market asset price causes the AD line to shift downward, decreasing. The long-run equilibrium in the first graph is the point where all three of the lines (LRAS, S1, and D1) are connecting. With a lower GDP, the aggregated demand curve shifts to the left (D1 to D2) creating a new equilibrium point at a lower price level. In the second graph it shows a higher supply with the increase in the SRAS (S1 to S2) curve. It will create a new long run equilibrium at a lower price level. In the last graph it shows both the shift in the AS curve from AD1 to AD2 due to the decrease and it shows the increase in the SRAS curve from S1 to S2 due to higher supplies. It shows both the old and new equilibrium along the LRAS curve. The first one being higher than the other when the shifts to the curves happened it caused the equilibrium to shift down the LRAS curve because of the lower price level. Therefore, there is a wealth decrease due to a decline in the stock market asset price causes the lines to shift causing the price level to lower and the output to increase. b. Assume the government lowers taxes, which increases the householdÃ¢â¬â¢s disposable income. However, the government purchases (spending) remains the same. (See the set of graphs below and shifts in graphs) Answer: In graph one the aggregate demand curve shifts from D1 to D2 as government lowers taxes and household disposable income increases. It shifts outward toÃ the right because there is an increase because the quantity of output demanded for a given price level rises. The shift represents an expansion. The long run equilibrium is where the LRAS, AS and AD intersect with one another. The second graph the AS line shifts to the left from S1 to S2 because there is a decrease in aggregate supply caused by the increase in input prices. This creates two different equilibriums the second one is created from the shift in the AS curve. On the third graph it shows all the changes made to the economy through the AD/AS line shifts. The AS line shifts from S1 to S2 and the AD line from D1 to D2. The lower equilibrium shows when all three lines are intersecting. It is the contractionary policy causing output and the price level to decrease in the short run, but only the price level to decrease in the l ong run. The higher equilibrium shows agree when all three lines are intersecting. It is the expansionary policy causing output and the price level to increase in the short run, but only the price level to increase in the long run. 2. Suppose the economy of a hypothetical country has reached its long-run macroeconomic equilibrium when each of the following aggregate demand shocks occurs. What kind of gap, inflationary or recessionary gap, will the economy face after the AD shock indicated by the shift in AD curves? What types of fiscal policy instruments will help move the economy back to the potential level of output (real GDP)? Give specific examples. a. At the long-run macroeconomic equilibrium, the stock market boom occurs and this increases the value of stocks households hold. (See the set of graphs below and shifts in graphs in the two-steps) Answer: A positive demand shock increases demand. Shown in graph one is the increase in the demand curve from SRAD1 to SRAD2 because of the positive demand shock. What an increase in demand does is cause more goods to be consumed at a higher price. This is why the shift occurs to the right of the demand curve because there is more of a demand for the goods being produced. An inflationary gap is when there is a gap between the level of real GDP and the potential output basically when the real GDP is greater than the potential. In the graphs because of the demand shock it shows an inflationary gap with the AS and AD curve intersecting on the right side of LRAS curve. In the second graph it shows that the government intervened inÃ order to bring the aggregate demand curve back down to its original place. Through the fiscal policy the government increased taxes to suck money out of the economy. The negative side is that it can create a sluggish economy and high unemployment levels. However, the government still has to use the fiscal policy in order to fine tuning the spending and taxation levels. b. The government increases its purchases (spending) due to natural disasters. (See the set of graphs below and shifts in graphs) Answer: To refresh a positive demand shock increases demand. The positive demand shock is occurring in the graphs due to the increase in spending because of the natural disaster. In graph one the SRAD shifts from SRAD1 to SRAD2, which is a sign of the positive demand shock. It means that more consumer goods are being consumed than produced. It causes the curve to shift to the right because of the increase in demand. This causes the government to take action in order to bring it back down to normal, stabilize it. The intervention is shown in graph two where the government stepped in and it brought the SRAD curve back down to its normal position SRAD3. An inflationary gap is in these graphs because of the shifts to the SRAD curve. An inflationary gap is when there is a gap between the level of real GDP and the potential output basically when the real GDP is greater than the potential. The inflationary gap is where the AS and AD curve intersect on the right side of the LRAS. Usually during an inflationary gap the government increases taxes in order to suck money out of the economy. This could also be done through the fiscal policy that dictates government-spending decreasing, which would also cause a decrease in the money circulation. The goal of the fiscal policy is to even out the business cycle. Assume the Central Bank reduces the money supply in the economy, which leads to an increase in the interest rates. (See the set of graphs below and shifts in graphs) Answer: A negative demand shock decreases demand. A negative demand shock usually encounters less quantity of goods being consumed, and the consumers still within the market pay a lower price for the good. Usually during these timesÃ the economy wants to ignite the fire through decreasing taxation-giving people more money to spend. In graph one we see the negative demand shock happening when the SRAD1 shifts to the SRAD2. This change causes a recessionary gap where the SRAD2 and the S1 intersect. A recessionary gap usually indicates that the economy is about to fall into a recession, which is defined by the lower real GDP (level of income) then the full-employment level. This puts downward pressure on pricing in the long run. Consumer spending is down and businesses are not making considerable profits. During a recession means they need to pump money into the economy through the government creating jobs and wages. This happens with the government intervention in graph two where the SRAD2 goes back to the SRAD3. Reference Investopedia. (2014). Fiscal Policy. Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/04/051904.asp Investopedia. (2014). Demand Shock. Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/demandshock.asp Libby Rittenberg and Timothy Tregarthen. (2014).
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Weird tourist attractions across the globe. Read more Top 6 weird tourist attractions around the world Halloween tours gain popularity among common travelers, as they allow you to explore the creepiest places on our planet. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve made a list of tourist spots that will set your imagination on fire. For all those, who love things that go bump in the night and canÃ¢â¬â¢t live without the mysterious, we have a treat: The GiantÃ¢â¬â¢s Causeway, Northern Ireland. Basalt columns, shaped in the form of a giantÃ¢â¬â¢s palm, are known to be one of the best sites in Northern Ireland. The odd structure that dates back to the days when Anglo-Saxons ruled Britain resembles a fantastic composition out of a fairy tale and is popular among tourists, who want a touch of history to their traveling routine. The Tianzi Mountains, China. Located in the Hunan Province in China, these peaks are nothing short of the ordinary. They are often covered in mist, and fog never ceases to flow over the cliffs. Many people say this is because the place is sacred, and tourists are attracted by sense of wonder that is present in Tianzi. You can take a car to the nearby village and later choose one of the trails to soak in the views. Besides, the magical sight of the mountains inspired film directors to create Ã¢â¬Å"AvatarÃ¢â¬ . The floating cliffs that we see in the movie are certainly a tribute to the Tianzi. The Nasca Lines, Peru. These strange geometric figures and animalistic images, etched into Pampa de San JosÃ ©, remain a mystery and excite a travelerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind anytime one comes closer for examination. Visible only from a distance and from a tower, located nearby, these lines may serve as an evidence of an ancient civilization that once inhabited the barren lands. What makes this sight even more exciting is the art of performance. The Nasca made the images stretch in one single line, and some of the shapes and forms are still not explained by science. Socotra Island, Yemen. Socotra Island may not belong to Africa geographically, but its unique flora causes scientists to open their mouths in awe. The island is mainly comprised of barren lands, covered with various species of fruits and plants. Most of them look bizarre to a European eye, and the biodiversity that is present on Socotra can make anyone speechless. Travelers love Socotra for its unbelievable atmosphere and the feeling of otherworldliness that engulfs you once you step on this land. Among the species that are particularly eccentric we can name the dragonÃ¢â¬â¢s blood tree with its extensive root system and a crown that looks majestic and scary. Chocolate Hills of Bohol Island, the Philippines. Conical in shape, these hills were once coral deposits. UNESCO named them one of the world's natural wonders, though some of the scientists claim their origin to be man-made. However, the hills are now more than 1, 000 years old, and when the rainy season is over, they gradually turn brown. This is why people associate them with chocolate cones and ice cream every time they are mentioned in the press. Goblin Valley State Park, Utah, USA. Though it may look like a Martian surface from the distance, this site has nothing to do with space. Situated two miles away from Salt Lake City, strange concrete formations earned their name due to their eerie shape. Scientists claim that years of erosion and exposure to wind and sand have caused these structures to look the way they do now. You can take a drive from Salt Lake City to see the goblin monuments with your own eyes Ã¢â¬â the impression is all the more creepy as they are located in the middle of a barren plain.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Steam Engines and the Industrial Revolution The steam engine, either used on its own or as part of a train, is the iconic invention of the industrial revolution. Experiments in the seventeenth century turned, by the middle of the nineteenth, into a technology which powered huge factories, allowed deeper mines and moved a transport network. Industrial Power Pre 1750 Before 1750, the traditional arbitrary starting date for the industrial revolution, the majority of British and European industries were traditional and relied on water as the main power source. This was a well-established technology, using streams and waterwheels, and was both proven and widely available in the British landscape. There were major problems because you had to be near suitable water, which could lead you to isolated places, and it tended to freeze or dry up. On the other hand, it was cheap. Water was also vital for transport, with rivers and coastal trade. Animals were also used for both power and transport, but these were expensive to run because of their food and care. For rapid industrialization to take place, alternative sources of power were needed. The Development of Steam People had experimented with steam-powered engines in the seventeenth century as a solution to power problems, and in 1698 Thomas Savery invented his Ã¢â¬ËMachine for Raising Water by FireÃ¢â¬â¢. Used in Cornish tin mines, this pumped water with a simple up and down motion that had only limited use and couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be applied to machinery. It also had a tendency to explode, and steam development was held back by the patent, Savery held for thirty-five years. In 1712 Thomas Newcomen developed a different type of engine and bypassed the patents. This was first used in Staffordshire coal mines, had most of the old limitations and was expensive to run, but had the distinct advantage of not blowing up. In the second half of the eighteenth century came inventor James Watt, a man who built on the development of others and became a major contributor to steam technology. In 1763 Watt added a separate condenser to NewcomenÃ¢â¬â¢s engine which saved fuel; during this period he was working with people involved in the iron-producing industry. Then Watt teamed up with a former toy manufacturer who had changed profession. In 1781 Watt, former toy man Boulton and Murdoch built the Ã¢â¬Ërotary action steam engineÃ¢â¬â¢. This was the major breakthrough because it could be used to power machinery, and in 1788 a centrifugal governor was fitted to keep the engine running at an even speed. Now there was an alternative power source for the wider industry and after 1800 the mass production of steam engines began. Considering steams reputation in a revolution which is traditionally said to run from 1750, steam was relatively slow to be adopted. A lot of industrialization had already taken place before steam power was in major use, and a lot had grown and improved without it. The cost was initially one-factor holding engines back, as industrialists used other sources of power to keep start-up costs down and avoid major risks. Some industrialists had a conservative attitude which only slowly turned to steam. Perhaps more importantly, the first steam engines were inefficient, using a lot of coal and needed large-scale production facilities to work properly, while much industry was small scale. It took time (until the 1830s/40s) for coal prices to fall and industry to become large enough to need more power. The Effects of Steam on Textiles The textile industry had used many different sources of power, from water to human in the many laborers of the domestic system. The first factory had been built at the start of the eighteenth century and used water power because at the time textiles could be produced with only a small amount of power. Expansion took the form of expanding over more rivers for the waterwheels. When steam-powered machinery became possible c. 1780, textiles were initially slow to adopt the technology, as it was expensive and required a high starting cost and caused trouble. However, over time the costs of steam fell and use grew. Water and steam power became even in 1820, and by 1830 steam was well ahead, producing a large increase in the productivity of the textile industry as new factories were created. The Effects on Coal and Iron The coal, iron and steel industries mutually stimulated each other during the revolution. There was an obvious need for coal to power steam engines, but these engines also allowed for deeper mines and greater coal production, making the fuel cheaper and steam cheaper, thus producing more demand for coal. The iron industry also benefited. At first, steam was used to pump water back up into reservoirs, but this soon developed and steam was used to power bigger and better blast furnaces, allowing for an increase in iron production. Rotary action steam engines could be linked to other parts of the iron process, and in 1839 the steam hammer was first in use. Steam and iron were linked as early as 1722 when Darby, an iron magnate, and Newcomen worked together to improve the quality of iron for producing steam engines. Better iron meant more precision engineering for steam. More on coal and iron. The Importance of the Steam Engine The steam engine might be the icon of the industrial revolution, but how important was it in this first industrial stage? Historians like Deane have said the engine had little impact at first, as it was only applicable to large-scale industrial processes and until 1830 the majority were small scale. She agrees that some industries used it, such as iron and coal, but that the capital outlay only became worthwhile for the majority after 1830 because of delays in producing viable engines, high costs at the start, and the ease with which manual labor can be hired and fired compared to a steam engine. Peter Mathias argues much the same thing but stresses that steam should still be considered one of the key advances of the industrial revolution, one which occurred near the end, initiating a second steam-driven phase.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Research Paper - AJP Taylor - Essay Example It will also try to analyze briefly his career as a lecturer, historian, and columnist. c. Works of Taylor- This paragraph looks into the major historical contributions of Taylor Which starts from The Italian Problems in European Diplomacy 1847-49 and goes through some controversial works like The Troublemakers and The Origins of Second World War. I do not try to mention all the works of Taylor because it will consume so many pages, only some of the works will be mentioned. d. TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s TV Career Ã¢â¬â This paragraph will try to analyze Taylor as famous figure in television and radio. The analysis starts from his beginning on the BBC show, The News. His career as a TV person will be analyzed because it added much to his fame, and on many occasions it made him a controversial figure. This paragraph will analyze what was TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to history. This is very important in the sense that this approach has distinguished Taylor from other historians. It will look into his believes, or rather prejudices about history and history makers. His way of popularizing history, looking at history from strange angles and his observation of great personalities also is included. b. Origins of Second World War- This paragraph will discuss his most controversial work, The Origins of Second World War. What was TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s controversial argument in the book and how he tried to Ã¢â¬Ëwhite washÃ¢â¬â¢ Hitler. d. Taylor as a controversial figure Ã¢â¬â This paragraph tries to look into the controversies (both private and public) that he created throughout his life. It starts with his three marriages. It discusses various contradictions that he made during his public life. His unholy and sycophantic relation with Lord Beaverbrook and his selfishness of befriending politicians will also be analyzed. His changing attitudes towards communism will be brought towards the end of the paragraph. This chapter is the real flesh of the research paper.
Friday, November 1, 2019
Medical Experiments on Incompetent Individuals in a Society - Essay Example Many factors are important and need to be taken into consideration while a problem of this intensity is being discussed. The divisions in the society need to be taken into account. Racial differences and how intelligence in different races and societies are assessed is an important aspect of such a debate. One must also assess the question as to who possesses the right to assess the intelligence of people who are to be subjected to medical experiments. What constitutes intelligence also remains an important part of this debate that would decide the future of human society. Much of this debate can be argued to stem from the work of the great naturalist, Charles Darwin, who argued that in a world where the natural resources that is available to everybody is limited, the law of the Ã¢â¬Ësurvival of the fittestÃ¢â¬â¢ would be the one that holds (Darwin). ... The fact that such reforms can be brought about or stalled only through the medium of legislation by the executives of nations makes the issue even more complicated. This is because the issue, like the legalization of abortion or animal rights, is an extremely sensitive issue and can create problems for political parties that usually take the decisions of the executive wing of the government of a nation state. Public perceptions are thus, an important part of this debate. An objective approach that brings people from various backgrounds together for negotiations would be the best way to seek a solution for this problem. This should be preceded by campaigns that seek to allay the fears of all sections of the society regarding this matter. This paper shall seek to look at the complexities of the issue at hand and examine the choices that are available to human society as a whole for the purpose of attaining a solution to this problem. The issue of whether people who are in states of co ma where they may not be able to inform others of their assent or dissent to be a part of a certain experiment conducted for the purpose of finding out the efficacy of a certain scientific or medical truth, is a complex one. What constitutes death for such people is a question that has not met with satisfactory answers from philosophers as of yet. People who have died may have, in their wills, decided to donate their bodies for the cause of medical research. The question of death, thus assumes importance in this matter. Also important is the assent of the person involved. In many cultures, the body of a person is considered to be important for the performance of the last