Sunday, May 24, 2020

How Can Average Nurses Be Involved The Political Process...

How can average nurses be involved in the political process? An average nurse can be involved in the political process by being an advocate for the patient through close involvement with the legislator and policymaker. The nurse can advocate on issues in which will result in an improvement of the outcome of the patient’s health. For example, the nurse can speak with the legislator concerning issues with having increased responsibilities with patient care and dealing with nursing shortage. The nursing shortage also brings a concern to the nurse with the new health care reform. The health care reform requires an individual to have insurance or they will have to pay a penalty fee. Most people would rather have insurance versus having to pay for the penalty fee. There may be some individuals in which who did not have insurance and they would put off their current health issues because of the lack of insurance. Now the individual has purchased health insurance as required by the new health care reform and there may be an increase numb er of people seeking health care treatment at the hospital. The number of patient’s seeking health care treatment increases, but there still remains an issue with staffing shortage. This is also an issue the nurse can present to their legislator or policymaker. â€Å"When nurses transition out of their comfort zone of patient care and into the arena of legislative advocacy, they can achieve a better health care system for themselves and theirShow MoreRelatedHow Nurses Can And Impacted Public Policy869 Words   |  4 Pagesand reading some of the ridiculous displays of political figures and candidates on multiple sides of the political fence, I have even developed an attitude of political avoidance. 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By opening an organization, APN must have strong financial and political skills to provide adequate amount of staff and to validate the cost of the organizationRead MoreStudent Loan Debt Is A Negative Effect On The Future1349 Words   |  6 Pagesgraduates try to obtain once they complete school. Some students are required to change their career choices due to the overwhelming debt; examples of this could be they are required to take a higher paying job, even if they do not want to, so they can afford their previous choices (Zhang). Many years ago the notion of being so overwhelming in debt seemed unfathomable; but as student loan debt is estimated at $870 billion to $1 trillion, students’ willingness to acquire debt is strong and has no Read MoreManager Is A For A Manager1220 Words   |  5 Pagesthe outward face of the people he or she supervises. It is often the case that leaders need to drum up support for their team’s work, often by building connections with outsiders. 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Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Public Managing Competing Agendas The United States...

Assignment 2: Public Administration- Managing Competing Agendas The United States Department of Health and Human Services is an organization which plays an essential role within the policy issues concerning the Healthcare Reform Act. The Department of Health and Human Services goal is to protect the health of all Americans. Thus for providing adequate and essential human services, especially for those who are incapable of doing so for themselves. Throughout this essay, one will examine the organizational structure and departments of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, as well as how each department interacts with each other. One will furthermore describe the primary ways human resource management of the Department of Health and Human Services impacts the issue of Healthcare. Next, one will evaluate primary ways the budget of the department positively or negatively impacts the issues associated with Healthcare Reform. Lastly, one will analyze the political environment of the Department of Health and Human Services, while also examini ng challenges political responsiveness may present for management, The United States Department of Health and Human Services The United States Department of Health and Human Services is run through an organizational structure. One which is regulated through the Immediate Office of the Secretary, whom which is responsible for operations and coordination of work for the secretary. This office consists of the Deputy Secretary, as wellShow MoreRelatedPublic Sector Ethics Concerns the Moral Requirements of Public Servants in the Services That They Are Paid for and Expected to Offer the People. It Concerns the Personal Morality of Officials and Adhering to Codes of4541 Words   |  19 Pagespersonal dealings. Public sector ethics concerns the moral requirements of public servants in that they are paid for and expected to offer the people. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Comparisim of Sanitation Facilities Within Informal Settlements Free Essays

COMPARISON OF LOW COST SANITATION TECHNOLOGIES PROVIDED TO INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS Mthunzi Rubuluza (Fill your name in under â€Å"Prepare, Properties, Doc Properties, Advanced†¦Ã¢â‚¬  and update this field) Student Number 200732536 A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Engineering, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the BTech Degree in Civil Engineering† Cape Town 23 September 2011 Declaration I, Mthunzi Rubuluza declare that this research dissertation is my own unaided work. It is being submitted for the BTech Degree at Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town. It has not been submitted before for any degree or examination in any other University. We will write a custom essay sample on Comparisim of Sanitation Facilities Within Informal Settlements or any similar topic only for you Order Now _______________________________________________ (Signature) Signed in Cape Town this _____________ day of ______________________ 2011 Abstract The influx of migrants to cities is placing a huge burden to infrastructure delivery in the Western Cape. This burden leads to the need for shelter and that in turn means that land is invaded illegally. The population now creates informal settlements. The rise of informal settlements leads to the lack of basic infrastructure such as water and sanitation. The environmental impact increases like pollution and that increases human health and gives rise to air-bone disease. As a result people tend to use open fields to defecate, illegal dumping, discharge of untreated waste water into wrong streams. The full range of technical options for providing adequate basic sanitation is still not widely known nor are the characteristics of the different options well understood. In particular, there is little appreciation of the long-term financial, environmental and institutional implications of operating and maintaining the various sanitation systems. As a result, in many cases communities and local governments are choosing technical options that, in the long term, are unaffordable and/or unsustainable. Challenges arise from the wide range of options available and the differing environments and conditions to which each is suited. On-site sanitation is the main form of excreta disposal in most sub-Saharan African cities and will remain the most appropriate level of service for the urban poor in the medium term. Despite heavy public investment in sewerage systems in most primary and some secondary cities, typically only 10-15% of the urban population benefit from access to the sewer network. About 80% of the urban population depends on on-site facilities such as septic tanks and pit latrines which, unlike sewers, are usually the responsibility of households. Acknowledgements I would like to humbly acknowledge everybody who supported me with prayers and encouragement My supervisor, Mr. C. Muanda, thank you for your mentorship and guidance The group members for the support they gave me when hope was gone. My friends who opened up their house for me to become a study area My Family, thank you for your guidance and teachings My dear wife, I love you, thank you for being there for me, supporting me and Mostly to my God, thank you Father for giving me strength every day Table of Contents Page Declarationii Abstractiii Acknowledgementsiv Table of Contentsv List of Figuresviii List of Tablesix List of Symbolsx Terms and conceptsxi Chapter 1Introduction1 1. 1Background and Motivation1 1. 2Research problem1 1. 3Research Question1 1. 4Objectives and outcomes2 1. 5Significance2 1. 6Delineation2 1. 7Assumptions2 1. 8Methodology2 1. 9Organisation of dissertation3 Chapter 2Literature review and theory4 2. 1Introduction4 2. 2Purpose of Sanitation Technologies4 2. 2. 1Planning Principles for Sanitation Facilities4 . 3Selection of Appropriate Sanitation Technologies6 2. 3. 1Low cost sanitation technology6 2. 3. 2Institutional technologies for sanitation6 2. 4Mobile Communal Sanitation Facilities7 2. 4. 1Types of Mobile Communal Sanitation Facilities7 2. 4. 2Wet system7 2. 5Operational Requirements8 2. 5. 1Dry system8 2. 6Implementation Challenges in South Africa8 2. 6. 1Implementation Challenge s at Provincial level9 2. 6. 2Implementation Challenges at City level9 2. 6. 3Implementation challenges within community and household level9 2. 7Types of Sanitation Facilities10 2. 7. 1Improved sanitation facilities10 . 7. 2Unimproved sanitation facilities10 2. 7. 3Unimproved sanitation (bucket system)10 2. 7. 4Improved sanitation (Septic tank)10 2. 8On-site sanitation11 2. 9Off-site sanitation11 2. 10Sanitation Guidelines for End-user11 2. 11Planning and Design for Sanitation by Local Authorities12 2. 11. 1Implementation process during planning12 2. 12Sanitation Provision Policy12 2. 13Costs13 2. 13. 1Cost on various levels13 2. 14Conclusion13 2. 15References15 Chapter 3Research methodology16 3. 1Research design16 3. 2Research methodology16 3. 2. 1Data16 3. 2. 2Data Collection16 3. 2. 3Research Equipment17 . 3Methodology17 3. 3. 1Objective 1 – To investigate available sanitation technologies provided to informal settlement from operational, design, maintenance and cost. 17 3. 3. 2Objective 218 3. 3. 3Objective 3 – Selection of the suitable option18 3. 4Semi Structured Interviews19 Chapter 4Discussion20 4. 1Types of Sanitation Technologies20 4. 1. 1Dry toilets20 4. 1. 2MobiSan (Mobile Sanitation)21 4. 1. 3Conservancy tank21 4. 1. 4VIP (Ventilated Improved Pit)22 4. 2On-site Sanitation22 4. 2. 1Pour flush slabs22 4. 2. 2Communal or shared technologies23 4. 2. 3Septic Tank24 4. 3Design24 4. Manufactures Cost25 4. 4. 1MobiSan toilets25 4. 4. 2Pre-cast toilets25 4. 5Photographs25 Figure 4. 1 Cluster of communal toilets26 4. 6STATS SA26 4. 6. 1Population census 200126 Chapter 5Discussion28 5. 1Sanitation Technology Options28 5. 2Operation and Maintenance29 5. 3Selection of an Appropriate Technology30 5. 3. 1Key issues raised for selection appropriate technology30 5. 4Sanitation Provision Approach31 5. 4. 1Supply driven sanitation31 5. 4. 2Demand driven sanitation31 5. 5Performance of these Sanitation Facilities31 There is not enough space due to the density of the settlements. 40 5. Guidelines and Policy42 5. 6. 1Strategy for Sanitation Services to Informal Settlements42 5. 6. 2Costing Guideline for Sanitation Facilities42 5. 7Basic Sanitation Policy Principles44 1. Sanitation must respond to the demands of communities and should link to improved hygiene awareness. For people to benefit from sanitation improvements, everybody must understand the link between their own health, good hygiene and toilet facilities. 44 2. Communities must be fully involved in projects. DWAF is only the regulator. Citizens have rights but also responsibilities in taking charge of their own health. 4 3. Sanitation must be provided in conjunction with water supply and other municipal services. 44 4. Sanitation is more than just toilets; it must be accompanied by environmental and health education. 44 5. Access to basic sanitation is a human right. 44 6. Local government has the constitutional responsibility to provide access to sanitation services. 44 7. Scarce public funds must be prioritised to help those most at risk. 44 8. Limited national funds should be fairly distributed throughout the country. 44 9. Water has an economic value and must be protected through sanitation. 44 10. Polluters must pay to clean up the water and the environment they have polluted. 44 11. Sanitation must be financially sustainable. 44 12. The environment must be protected when sanitation systems are set up and run. 44 5. 7. 1What will the Basic Household Policy Achieve? 44 CHAPTER 6 Recommendation and Conclusion45 References47 Appendices48 Appendix A. Questionnaire for users48 List of Figures Page Body Figure 2. 1 Sample Figure CaptionError! Bookmark not defined. Figure 2. 2 [Replace this text with your own caption – don’t forget to cite reference if appropriate – don’t change figure numbering or caption style]Error! Bookmark not defined. Figure 2. 3 [Replace this text with your own caption – don’t forget to cite reference if appropriate – don’t change figure numbering or caption style]Error! Bookmark not defined. Figure 2. 4 Replace this text with your own caption – don’t forget to cite reference if appropriate – don’t change figure numbering or caption style – these are Blue Hills –don’t put them or Blue Sky stuff in your dissertation. (Name, 2007)Error! Bookmark not defined. Figure 3. 1 Sample Figure CaptionError! Bookmark not defined. Figure 4. 1 Sample Figure CaptionError! Bookmark not defined. Figure 4. 2 Sample figure and figure caption (Name, year)Error! Bookmark not defined. Figure 4. 3 Sample figure and figure caption. Make sure figure is big enough to read easily – not like this one! (Name, year)Error! Bookmark not defined. Appendices Figure A. 1 Sample appendix figure caption48 Figure A. 2 Sample appendix figure caption48 Figure B. 1 Sample appendix figure captionError! Bookmark not defined. Figure B. 2 Sample appendix figure captionError! Bookmark not defined. Figure C. 1 Sample appendix figure caption49 Figure C. 2 Sample appendix figure captionError! Bookmark not defined. Figure D. 1 Sample appendix figure caption49 Figure D. 2 Sample appendix figure caption49 Figure D. 3 Sample appendix figure caption49 List of Tables Page Body Table 4. 1Replace this text and table with your own – don’t forget to cite reference if appropriate – don’t change table numbering or caption styleError! Bookmark not defined. Table 4. 2 Sample Table (note use of repeated header as table split across page – only split if it can’t be avoided) (Name, year)Error! Bookmark not defined. Table 4. 3Replace this text and table with your own – don’t forget to cite reference if appropriate – don’t change table numbering or caption style (Name, year)Error! Bookmark not defined. Appendices Table A. 1 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year)Error! Bookmark not defined. Table A. 2 Another appendix table example48 Table A. 3 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year)48 Table A. 4 Another appendix table example48 Table B. 1 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year)Error! Bookmark not defined. Table B. 2 Another appendix table exampleError! Bookmark not defined. Table B. 3 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year)Error! Bookmark not defined. Table B. 4 Another appendix table exampleError! Bookmark not defined. Table C. 1 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year)Error! Bookmark not defined. Table C. 2 Another appendix table example49 Table C. 3 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year)49 Table C. 4 Another appendix table example49 Table D. 1 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year)49 Table D. 2 Another appendix table example49 Table D. 3 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year)49 Table D. 4 Another appendix table example49 List of Symbols Constants ab| Distance between mid-chord and elastic axis(mm)| | B| Airfoil half-chord(mm)| | C| Non-dimensional distance between airfoil mid-chord and flap hinge line(-)| | U| Free stream velocity(m/s)| | W| Flexure width(mm)| | X| Distance along span(mm)| | x? | Non-dimensional distance between airfoil pitch axis and airfoil cg(-)| | x? | Non-dimensional distance between flap hinge axis and flap cg(-)| | | | | Greek letters ?| Pitch angle (rad)| | ?| Flap angle (rad)| | | Commanded flap angle (rad)| | ?| Tensile stress (MPa)| | ?| Shear stress (MPa)| | ?| Flutter frequency in (rad/s)| | | | | Subscripts/superscripts A| Aerodynamic| | H| Related to plunge degree of freedom| | ?| Related to pitch degree of freedom| | ?| Related to flap degree of freedom| | S| Structural| | W| Wing| | T| Flutter frequency in (rad/s)| | | | | Terms and concepts VIP| Ventilated Improvement Pit| UDS| Urine Diversion System| Eco San| Ecological Sanitation| MCSF| Mobile Community Sanitation Facility| MO| Municipal Officer| IS| Informal Settlement| MobiSan| Mobile Sanitation| AB| Ablution Block| Introduction The main objective of a sanitation system is to protect and promote human health by providing a clean environment and breaking the cycle of disease. In order to be sustainable a sanitation system has to be not only economically viable, socially acceptable and technically and institutionally appropriate, but it should also protect the environment and the natural resources. When improving an existing and/or designing a new sanitation system, sustainability criteria related to the following aspects should be considered, health, includes the risk of exposure to pathogens and hazardous substances that could affect public health at all points of the sanitation system from the toilet via the collection and treatment system to the point of reuse or disposal. This literature review covers types of sanitation, characteristics of sanitation, sanitation provision policy, criteria for selection of sanitation, conclusion. Background and Motivation The influx of migrants to cities is placing a huge burden to infrastructure delivery in the Western Cape. This burden leads to the need for shelter and that in turn means that land is invaded illegally. The population now creates informal settlements. The rise of informal settlements leads to the lack of basic infrastructure such as water and sanitation. The environmental impact increases like pollution and that increases human health and gives rise to air-bone disease. As a result people tend to use open fields to defecate, illegal dumping, discharge of untreated waste water into wrong streams. Informal settlements by their nature are quite densely populated and access through the settlement is quite hard. Basic services are larking due to the fact there are no structures that govern the raise of settlements and the need to deliver basic sanitation services increases. There is a huge need to analyse which technology functions within the limits experienced in informal settlements. Research problem The influx of migrants from rural area impoverished and densely populated areas in South Africa towards prosperous regions is creating immense pressures on the existing infrastructure. The conditions of life to informal settlements tend to be poor, with low mobility, and difficult access to health, education, recreation and sanitation. Informal settlements are created without planning and basic infrastructure. Due to the large number of sanitation technologies available and dynamic of these informal settlements, the choice of suitable and sustainable sanitation technology is of utmost importance. Currently, sanitation services provided are not accepted by settlers. Where it is supplied, it is vandalised or misused. This results in unnecessary pressure on decision makers to provide adequate sanitation and loss of investment. Research Question Which is the most practical low cost sanitation technology that can be provided for informal settlements in the Western Cape? Objectives and outcomes The aim of this work is to investigate the existing sanitation technologies provided to informal settlements in the Western Cape. To investigate available sanitation technologies provided in informal settlement (Cape Flats) technology by outlying, (advantages disadvantages) from operational, design, maintenance and cost perspective. To classify the types of sanitation according to the characteristics; (dry or wet sanitation; individual or communal). To select the most suitable sanitation options. Recommend the most suitable option. A questioner will be used to find view points of the community within informal settlements. Operational costs and Structural costs per unit Significance This study intends to provide a Better Understanding of sanitation facilities within the Western Cape within informal settlements and to compare the cost implications of such facilities. Delineation This study will focus only on the sanitation facilities within informal settlements in the Western Cape. The research will compare sanitation facilities provided for highly serviced areas within the Western Cape and the design for formal settlements will be mentioned. Assumptions The expected results of the study are as follow: †¢An overview of sanitation technologies provided to informal settlements †¢Outline key criteria used for selecting the area for the technology †¢Provide a cost effective sanitation technology for informal settlements Methodology There will be three (3) informal settlements around the Western Cape that will be selected based on the type of sanitation provided. (Kuyasa, New Crossroad and Nyanga). Field visits will be conducted to look at each sanitation type provided for the people of that particular informal settlement. Visual assessment will used as a way of assessing the facilities at selected case study sites. The assessment will be done with the following: -Design -Operation -Maintenance operations cost effectiveness -Interview with a Water Sanitation official -Views of users Organisation of dissertation Here you must describe briefly how the dissertation unfolds. Don’t just list the chapter headings – say a little about each one. Introduce the chapters in the order in which they appear and give an overview of the main points considered in each, except for your introduction (Chapter 1) of which this is the last section i. e. it is reasonable to assume this introduction has just been read. Simply state what is covered in each chapter and in what order, to reveal the logic and structure of the dissertation. Do not give any proofs, arguments or results here. Complete this section last to ensure it describes the dissertation accurately. Literature review and theory This chapter is about the comparison of low cost sanitation technologies provided to informal settlements Introduction The main objective of a sanitation system is to protect and promote human health by providing a clean environment and breaking the cycle of disease. In order to be sustainable a sanitation system has to be not only economically viable, socially acceptable and technically and institutionally appropriate, but it should also protect the natural resources and the environment. When improving an existing or designing a new sanitation system, sustainable aspects should be considered. Institutional appropriateness, sanitation technologies should be managed at the lowest appropriate level, such as municipalities. The household is a major factor in sustaining human health and the environment. Beneficiary communities from the provision of sanitation technologies, or from improvements to existing sanitation technologies, must be partners in the planning, implementation and, where appropriate, operation and maintenance of these technologies or improvements. Of course, sanitation planning cannot be done in a wholly decentralized way: there has to be a coherent city-wide approach to sanitation, but the planning process has to take into account the views of the intended beneficiaries and recognise that the sanitation solutions for very poor, poor and non-poor households are likely to be very different. Affordable sanitation technologies must be affordable for the households using them. In the Western Cape in particular consideration must be given to the affordability of sanitation technologies for poor and very poor households. Purpose of Sanitation Technologies Background The prime purpose of a sanitation system is to break the disease cycle caused by the bacteria in human excreta. To do so, the system has to combat exposure to infection through all the stages from the generation of excreta to their final disposal or reuse. It is important to emphasise again that human behaviour is crucial and fostering behavioural change is a key component of sanitation system planning. In this chapter, though, we are concerned with the functional elements of the system. While individual components will vary considerably with local circumstances and will differ from community to community, the division into elements creates flexibility and choice in developing appropriate solutions. Planning Principles for Sanitation Facilities There are a few principles that lead to beneficial changes for the community and the city as a whole. Below are the six (6) principles for affective strategic planning: 1. Respond on sound finance Service provision should respond to what the potential user wants and willing to pay for. 2. Focus on sound finances Intended users’ willingness to pay for sanitation systems will not be possible for expansion for facilities required. 3. Develop incentives for good practice Individuals and organisations act in a way that ensures the on-going availability of functioning sanitation services need to be incentives for good practice. 4. Involve stakeholders in appropriate ways Groups, individuals and organisation with an interest in some particular subject, in this case sanitation become stakeholders. All stakeholders need to be involved in developing policy context for sanitation acting as intermediaries between service user and service providers. . Take a wide view of sanitation Stakeholders should look beyond local solutions to narrowly defined problems and recognise the links between different sanitation services. Excreta disposal, solid waste management and drainage are interrelated and the impact of improvements in one will be reduced if they are carried out without regard to the others. 6. Take management steps towards intermediate objectives This principle is derived from the incremental approach to the development and implementation of strategies identified, when considering steps of improving set objectives. ELEMENTS TO BE CONSIRDED FOR SANITATION PURPOSES Five elements which need to be considered separately are as follows: †¢ The toilet – there is a wide range of latrines, water closets, urine-diversion toilets, etc. , that may be considered, depending on local circumstances. †¢ The collection system – septic tanks, pits, vaults, drums, may be appropriate in different environments. †¢ Transportation – large or small sewer systems, motorised, mechanical or manual haulage may need to be considered. Treatment – systems vary from sophisticated wastewater treatment plants and sludge digestion to simple composting systems and soil filtration. †¢ Use of sanitation products – urine, composted excreta and biogas are all important resources. If all five (5) elements for sanitation are adhered too then, Health, which is one of the aspects which include the risk of exposure to hazardous substances and pathogens that could affect public health a t all points of the sanitation system from the toilet via the collection and treatment system to the point of reuse or disposal. Aspects such as hygiene, nutrition and improvement of livelihood achieved by the application of a certain sanitation system, as well as downstream effects needs to be prioritized. Selection of Appropriate Sanitation Technologies The selection of appropriate sanitation technologies within informal settlements either locally (SA) or internationally, should be considered. . The physical environment and technical feasibility in which it can be installed (sanitation facility) for example; consideration has to be given for (altitude, ground slopes, soils, hydrogeology, housing density, liability to flooding and local climate. The selection must also be compatible both with local socio-cultural practices and preferences and with local socio-economic conditions, with the ability to pay for the sanitation arrangement selected and also willingness to pay for services rendered. Any selected low cost sanitation for any given community has to comply with the six (6) principles for sustainable sanitation. Low cost sanitation technology Sanitation is divided into two broad groups: on site and off site systems. The technologies are further divided into three (3) reuse categories: centralized reuse, intermittent reuse and decentralized reuse and these leads to different sets of sanitation solutions. Household or local community level is Decentralized reuse (a house block). Natural drainage basins within an urban area are Centralized reuse level (town, city), wastewater collection is required followed by wastewater treatment. Pit latrines, pour-flush toilets and septic tanks are all intermittent reuse which refers to on-site systems. Conventional sewerage is not covered as it is too expensive for informal settlements (IWA, 2004). Service delivery in a recent inventory indicates that most of the informal settlements are severely lagging behind in sanitation coverage. Government’s current approach is to aim to supply informal settlements with toilets to be shared within five (5) households. Most of the toilets are locked and their maintenance relies on the users. In the Western Cape especially in the Cape Flats area the types of toilets that are mostly used are chemical (Nyanga) and bucket system (New cross) as shared facilities while VIP and UDS are considered as individual facilities. The options mentioned are not always available or suitable for the informal settlements due to the nature of the settlements. These services are considered as emergency services but however remain with the communities for a long period of time (Mel’s et al, 2009). Institutional technologies for sanitation Institutional technologies for sanitation within South African government structures need to incorporate accountability. During the planning phase all sanitation technologies are prone to mismanagement (including sanitation selection). An assessment for the comparison of sanitation technology needs to include, who is responsible for what and the likelihood that these responsibilities can and will be effectively discharged over the appropriate timeframes (short, medium and long term commitments). A non-prescriptive professional attitude and in depth local knowledge is required for assessment purposes (Mara et al, 2001). Comparison of the two arrangements is vital because they deal with people and government entities on how to handle sanitation. The CoCT plays a critical role in identifying the need for sanitation in each community. Mobile Communal Sanitation Facilities Due to the ever increasing need for free land and lack of space in our urban areas, alternative technologies in order to meet the sanitation demand and respond to the communities need to be made available. Temporary sanitation facilities such as the Mobile Communal Sanitation Facility (MCSF) have been introduced recently in areas where sanitation is to take place (Muanda, 2010). Types of Mobile Communal Sanitation Facilities Mobile Communal Sanitation Facility (MCSF) varies in terms of their design, operational and use requirements. MCSF can be classified according to their operational requirements. In practice the common types that are found are either dry (not requiring water) and wet (requiring water). A system that uses both scenarios has been identified as an improvement solution dealing with various situations. Wet system This type of system requires water for its operation. There are several types of such systems that are being used throughout the world and in Africa such as the DMT (dignified mobile toilet). There are solar powered toilets, sewer connected mobile toilet. Mostly in South Africa the most commonly used system is the Kayaloo and Mobisan (Parkison et al, 2008). Dry system This type of sanitation system does not require water for its operation. There are a few in South Africa such as the Mobile Pit toilet. In the international arena the following system for dry systems technologies include the wheel toilet (Burkina Faso), composting mobile toilet (France), tricycle toilet (India and Sri Lanka) {Pickford, 1995}. Combined system This type of system is a dual system that can be used as dry or wet sanitation; it can operate without the availability of water or sewer. In the international arena, the NMT (Nepal Mobile Toilet) is the commonly used system under this category (Parkison et al, 2008). South African perception of MCSF The perception of users of mobile sanitation facilities are context based. The most preferred type of sanitation in South Africa is the individual full waterborne flush toilet. Communities within informal settlements are demanding that this type of sanitation should be provided to them at any cost regardless of the type of topography, shelter or the status of the land occupied. MCSF are seen by communities that the level of service is closer to that off the full flush toilet despite the communal status of the facility and communities are comfortable using it. Communities believe that this type of sanitation provides dignity and privacy compared to other types of sanitation in the areas. The slow pace of delivery and the long waiting for the provision of the individual sanitation has changed people’s perception recently. Most of the communities feel that the type of technology brought for a temporary basis has turned up to be a permanent solution (Grootboom, 2010). Operational Requirements City of Cape Town (CoCT) for example most of the settlements (75%) are located on land that is owned by the municipality and a large share which is (22%) is located in private lands. Consent from the owner has to be obtained by the Water Services Department in order to deliver services on site. Permission by many owners is not given due the fact that communities will make their temporally settlement a permanent one. A major constraint for sanitation service provision is the high density of settlements. Dry system The operation of this system does not require water for its operation and this is how the dry system is defined. Dry mobile sanitation system requires a location where the facility needs to be installed and the disposal point or discharging excreta when the box is full at the bottom of the system for cleaning purposes (Scandura Sobsey,1997). 2. 5. 2 Wet system The wet system for mobile sanitation requires water and sewer in order to make the system operational. A toilet bowl is connected under this sanitation system using a pipe linking to the sewer or septic tank. The system depends on water and cannot function if water is not available. In cases where there is no sewer line, the wastewater is pumped out and taken to a disposal site (Dorrigton, 2000). 2. 5. Combined system The combined system was designed to overcome the unavailability of water and the effects that can happen to the operation of such a system. It combines both systems and can be operated without water and with water (Parkison et al, 2008). Implementation Challenges in South Africa Communities in needy areas are waiting for the implementation of sanitation technology that will provide dignified sanitation to them. The success for the implementation should be designed in such that all the parameters of the technology are not compromised. In the past the focus was mainly on the technology of the sanitation facility, and recently the attention has shifted to the implementation methods of sanitation technologies. Implementation means the process of introduction of sanitation in communities, not necessary the design, but the development process of sanitation. Introduction of the strategy and approach towards the community is vita (Classen, 2003). Professionals in this field feel that the implementation plan should have the environment as the first priority, then after the technical aspects to meet he human societal needs, and finally the economic requirements with these communities. It has become clear from, human societal needs are important and technology must help achieve this basic needs (Grootboom, 2010). Implementation Challenges at Provincial level The role of the provincial government needs to be clarified in the funding of urban infrastructure investments and the planning and the delivery of sanitation services is of utmost importance. A key challenge is the lack of capacity for sanitation promotion and progress monitoring. Evasion of funds that are exclusively allocated to sanitation is affecting service provision (Grootboom, 2010). Implementation Challenges at City level Key challenges at municipal levels are related to the following issues: The lack of mechanisms bearing in mind the range of organizations that have a stake in sanitation for inter-agency collaboration on planning and service delivery. Not all municipalities at present accept that there is a problem with excreta disposal. For the achievements of national sanitation goals there is a lack of incentives and accountability. There is a shortage of capacity within the municipality in infrastructure development, planning, service delivery and sanitation promotion. Poorly understood and complicated mechanisms for accessing and allocating capital funds. The private sectors service delivery and maintenance in the safe removal, treatment and disposal of septic tank is under-developed and unregulated. Existing infrastructure is poorly maintained and operated (Grootboom, 2010). Implementation challenges within the community and household level Communities need to play a role as the intended usurers in the implementation of sanitation facilities. The challenge occur at this level, when limited appreciation of the need for safe disposal of wastewater. In most cases those that occupy land illegally are excluded from municipal projects and planning processes thus posing threats to the provision or implementation of sanitation services (Classen, 2003). For any technology to be embraced by the community they have to be involved from the inception phase, design phase and during the construction phase so that they can embrace the services being rendered by government institutions. CoCT and Local government face a huge back log of housing projects that can play a role in elevating sanitation stumbling blocks within informal settlements. Implementation challenges within community and household level Communities need to play a role as the intended usurers in the implementation of sanitation facilities. The challenge occur at this level, when limited appreciation of the need for safe disposal of wastewater. In most cases those that occupy land illegally are excluded from municipal projects and planning processes thus posing threats to the provision or implementation of sanitation services (Classen, 2003). For any technology to be embraced by the community they have to be involved from the inception phase, design phase and during the construction phase so that they can embrace the services being rendered by government institutions. CoCT and Local government face a huge back log of housing projects that can play a role in elevating sanitation stumbling blocks within informal settlements. Types of Sanitation Facilities The type of sanitation facilities listed below can be found throughout the Western Cape. The type of technology used for a particular settlement depends on the following elements which determine the final product being utilised i. e. topography, population, water resource and availability of the facility. Improved sanitation facilities This are facilities which are not shared or public, for example; flush or pour flush, piped system, pit latrine, septic tank, ventilated improved pit latrine with slab and compositing toilet (Franceys et. al 1992). Unimproved sanitation facilities Excreta is flushed to the street, yard or plot, open sewer, a ditch, a drainage way or other location pit latrine without slab or open pit, bucket, hanging toilet or hanging latrine and no facilities or bush or field (Lemer, 1996). Unimproved sanitation (bucket system) Design and function In the South African context the bucket is always black, pvc and is about 38 cm in diameter at the top and 30 cm at the bottom and has adequate handles for lifting and carrying. The collection chamber is situated below the squatting seat. All the chambers are open at the rear of the latrine, into the service lane used for collection. The collection chamber must be fly and animal proof. The chamber needs to be ventilated by means of a pipe vent carried to roof level of the superstructure (Pickford, 1995). Collection and conveyance of buckets On a weekly basis collection are done and gets replaced with a disinfected bucket. Buckets that are emptied into a tank and are returned immediately the practice should be condemned unreservedly. The time of the collection should be done in partnership with the community affected. Buckets are emptied at the disposal sites, thoroughly washed, and disinfected with phenol or creosol type of disinfectant before being stores away and re-used (Pickford, 1995). Improved sanitation (Septic tank) The most satisfactory unit all water-carried systems and the most useful system of disposal of excreta and other liquid wastes from individual dwellings, small groups of houses, or institutions located in informal settlements out of reach of sewer systems. The septic tank consists of a covered settling tank into which the raw sewage is led by the building sewer. Inside the septic tank the processes constitute the primary treatment of raw sewage; and those which occur in the disposal field form the secondary treatment. All liquids wastes, including those from bathrooms and kitchens, may be sent to the septic tank without endangering its normal operation. Contrary to popular belief, recent research has shown that sullage waste can and should be discharged into septic tanks (Lemer, 1996). On-site sanitation As it was mentioned before that there are two types of sanitation systems in this instance the On-site sanitation systems is generally designed and must operate in such a way excreta is deposited into a man-made container, usually a subsurface excavation or tank. The common trend to all forms of on-site sanitation is that decomposition process and settlement is performed on-site. This is the most low-cost sanitation system as it has various types of pit latrines. They can be either wet or dry systems. Due to the shortage of space and availability of land in informal settlements this system operates the best under these conditions (Lemer, 1996). Off-site sanitation This type of sanitation system transports sewage through sewer pipes using water. An off-site sanitation system only transport faecal matter away from households and does not include on-site decomposition to a significant degree. This type of system depends largely on the topography of the area and the planning around the system. There must be enough land and space before such a system is created, which is difficult in informal settlements. The cost of such a system is quite high (Scandura and Sobsey, 1997). The availability of funds and the topography play an important role in the decision making on what type of technology communities should have within informal settlements. Sanitation Guidelines for End-user Greater user acceptance is achieved through user involvement and influence in selection, implementation and management including operation of the technology is borne out of understanding and experience that people best understand their own development situation, social, cultural and religious practices. If the communities are involved it leads to greater ownership and empowerment and would translate into greater acceptance of responsibility and hence the technology. It is within the human nature to be more receptive and supportive when asked about one’s opinion as opposed to being dictated or told to what’s is best for oneself (Mara, 1996). Note the following reasons why services fail: †¢Ineffective planning, monitoring, evaluation and interventions †¢Poor technical capacity to implement †¢Hygiene and inappropriate use practises. †¢Low user acceptance and satisfaction †¢Inadequate community involvement Low priority and †¢Lack of responsibilities between municipal, community and household Finally- it is of great importance not to move too fast from temporary programmes to full-scale programmes, the community need to receive the programme so that it is not rejected. Planning and Design for Sanitation by Local Authorities Sanitation technolog y is adequately dependent on the appropriate design specification is borne out of the understanding that the correct design standards and locally appropriate materials would enhance the durability of the technology in a given local context. Planning plays a pivotal role as it is used as an important factor to determine whether appropriate and sustainable sanitation technologies are achieved. A planning model that integrates everyone is ideal (WSP, 2007) that takes place within the Integrated Development Planning (IDP) process (DWAF, 2001). The various sanitation options are demonstrated through the IDP process. A top-down to bottom-up approach for a planning model should drive the demand and should be entirely people centred, best achieved through a collective model (Tilley, 2008). Implementation process during planning A methodology for the provision of sanitation is necessary to establish sanitation for low-income settlements and to support and equip personal responsible for provision of sanitation to low-income settlements (Muanda, 2010). In the planning process specific emphasis for adequate functioning of the technology is placed on the environmental aspect, that local environmental and geological condition are considered and that the technology does not adversely impact on the environment (DWAF, undated). The recurring points that need to be systemised are as follows; Human rights and socio-cultural needs should be considered †¢Affordability for the user †¢Sanitation should be demand driven †¢Stakeholder participation †¢Support, regulation and implementation within the community participation framework should be considered. †¢Provision for construction should be to locals. †¢Community linkage at all levels During the implementation place it is important to include health and hygiene training as to ensure improved health and hygiene practice (Still et. al, 2009). What happens in the case where a local authority has provided such training? Over time many new comers arrive into the settlement (as is the case in many informal settlements)? The only solution to the question here is to train trainers in the community who will be responsible for constantly creating awareness in their community (DWAF, 2009). Sanitation Provision Policy South Africa despite being a democratic country for more than a decade, with a sound constitution and sound policies there is still high levels of poverty and inequalities and budgetary realignments designed to address the legacies of the past and steady economic growth (DWAF, undated). Some policies have been relatively successful but still South Africa has the second highest in equality in the world behind Brazil (UNICEF, 2000). The fact is that by 1996 not that much had been achieved by way of sanitation provision in any of the provinces (DBSA, 2009). Sanitation has become a high priority on the development agenda, and not just with the Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) sector specialist. The opportunities for financial support are better than ever, the political commitment is there, so as to deliver sustainable sanitation services to more than two billion people by 2015. A further 1,089 million rural and 1,085 million urban dwellers will need to gain access in the coming 15 years if the 2015 target is to be achieved. The first democratic government since 1994 has put in place policies that address the apartheid health legacy of racial discrimination. During this process, several key-pro equity policies were inherited in the public sector. In the South African context the policy not only influences the approach to the financing and management of projects but also their technical features (WHO, 1999). Costs Socio-cultural landscapes and local variations in the physical landscape necessitate local input into the selection process and any preconceived ideas should be put on hold. Discussions with the targeted community about local capital and operation and maintenance costs have to be determined in each case that will enable the community and local authorities to come to a decision based on affordability. It is important that agencies reporting comparative costs on a wholly transparent basis, so that only the â€Å"true† basic costs of sanitation arrangement are presented to the communities (DBSA, 2009). Cost on various levels There are five (5) principles for various levels. †¢All costs relating to the provision of sanitation service should be included †¢A distinction should be made between capital and operating costs †¢A clear distinction has to be made between internal and bulk services †¢Costs services must be expressed as current replacement at capacity cost. †¢Costs to be reduced per area or site. Cost sanitation technologies can also be influenced through the natural features such as vegetation, terrain and water availability and climatic conditions generally within the settlements. Conclusion The sanitation approach includes the perception, feel and practices involved in satisfying the primal need to defecate and urinate. Societal sanitation approach determines the nature of sanitation which serves as the crucial link between an unhealthy and healthy living environment. The term sanitation includes the safe disposal of domestic waste. For the purposes of this research, the structure seeks to understand the appropriate sanitation and identify a sanitation structure that is cost effective and will be sustainable in informal settlements. Sanitation facilities are used to improve human dignity regardless of the area and the circumstances of the people. In this study we have looked at the process that needs to be followed in order to have sanitation technologies that safe guard the people. In informal settlements due to the nature of their existence and the lack of formal services, the communities usually do not take ownership of these facilities. The onus is upon government to train people about the importance of sanitation. The study focussed mostly on technologies that are used internationally and locally. The comparison of this technologies will be based on cost, structural intact and the maintenance therefore of the technology. References Rockstrom, Johan et al. : Sustainable Pathways to attain the Millennium Development Goals Assessing the Key Role of Water, Energy and Sanitation, Stockholm Environmental Institute, 2005. WHO UNICEF: Meeting the MDG Drinking Water and Sanitation Target – The urban and rural challenge. WSSCC/Sandec (2000). The Bellagio Statement on Sustainable Sanitation. Jenssen et al. , 2004 P. D. Jenssen, J. Heeb, E. Huba-Mang, K. Gnanakan, S. W. Warner, K. Refsgaard, Stenstorm Thor-Axel, B. Guterstam and K. W. Alsen, Ecological sanitation and reuse of wastewater, ecosan, a thinkpiece on ecological sanitation (2004). HDR (Human Development Report), 2006 HDR (Human Development Report), Beyond Scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis, United Nations Development Programme, New York (2006). Dorrington RE, Bradshaw D, Budlender D. HIV/AIDS Profile of the Provinces of South Africa—Indicators for 2002. Cape Town, South Africa: Centre for Actuarial Research, Medical Research Council and the Actuarial Society of South Africa, University of Cape Town; 2002. Rogerson, C. (1993); South African policy lessons. Urban Forum Vol. 4; No. 2. Housing Conditions, sanitation status and associated health risks in selected subsidized low- cost housing settlements in Cape Town, South Africa. Govender, T. Jo M. Barnes. Joubert A, Stewart T (2003). Evaluation of water supply augmentation and water demand management options for the City of Cape Town, journal of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis. Lemanski, C (2009). Augmented informality; South Africans backyard dwellings as a by-product of formal housing policies. WHO, (2006). Surveillance, planning, financing. Available online. City of Cape Town, Department of housing, (2004). Breaking new ground, comprehensive plan for housing delivery. Available online. Research methodology This chapter provides a comprehensive description of the comparison methods used to analyse sanitation technologies in informal settlements (IS). It outlines an overview of the research design, data collection, research equipment and research methodology used in order to meet the study objectives. Research design This section of the study is made up of the following: * Literature review which compromises of literature, a body review, a framework, a body of knowledge with regards to sanitation technologies. Data collection which compromise methods used to collect required data * Data Analysis and Presentation in the light of the literature review to determine the trends used for sanitation technologies for IS. Research methodology This study intends to provide a better understanding of sanitation facilities within the Western Cape within informal settlements and to compare the cost imp lications of such facilities. Data The data required in order to archive the study objectives includes the type of sanitation technology for IS and the cost in relation to sanitation technology. Data acquired was based on the following: †¢Type of sanitation †¢Cost (Operational Maintenance) †¢Cost (Infrastructure) †¢Advantages and Disadvantages of On-site sanitation †¢Advantages and Disadvantages of Off-site sanitation Data Collection In order to collect data two methods are used (Two interviews Site visits). * Site visits on selected IS in order to assess the type of sanitation technology being used. The site visits where done by conducting visual assessment in three informal settlements with the Metro. Data was collected by comparing the types of technology that is being used within each settlement. A questionnaire template was used to gather user’s views and opinions on the technologies offered by the municipality. * An interview with the Municipal Officer (MO) to confirm or validate data/technology on site and the cost of the technology. The interview was set out to ascertain the magnitude and the need of sanitation facilities within informal settlements which is done by the municipality. Operational and maintenance cost of the technology being used was collected for comparison purposes. * An interview with manufactures of sanitation technologies was conducted in order to confirm cost per unit. All the manufactures that where contacted where primary manufactures that the municipality procures all their sanitation technologies. Rocla was one of the manufactures that was interviewed about their precast toilets. Rocla has two sets of precast toilets one with sanitation facilities and one without sanitation facilities. A comparison of the two technologies has been tabled in Chapter 4. Santec was also interviewed about their Mobile toilets which comprised two sets of toilets (dry wet). A comparison of the two technologies is outlined in Chapter 4. Research Equipment The following equipment was used for this study: * Pen; this tool was used to capture raw data from site. * Laptop; ; the laptop is used to store all data collected and is also used to make tables to present all the research work into a document * Digital Camera; the digital camera was used to take pictures on site and during interviews. * Mobile phone; mobile phones where used as a means of communication amongst all stakeholders involved. * Fax Machine; was used to send and also receive data from stakeholders without email facilities and scans. Landline; the tool was used for communication between office hours and is the most affordable means of communication. Methodology Objective 1 – To investigate available sanitation technologies provided to informal settlement from operational, design, maintenance and cost. The objective was implemented by conducting of site visits, during which visual assessments where used to compile the name of the technology, speci fic technical aspects such as design and the condition of the technologies on site. Below is a list of design technologies within informal settlements that where visited. * Porta potiies * Chemical toilets Container toilets * Conservancy tanks * Pour flush toilets * Pit latrines * Urine diversion toilets * MobiSan toilets * Environmental loo Objective 2 * To classify the types of sanitation according to the characteristics (dry or wet sanitation; individual or communal). Classification of the technology was done by identifying individual and communal sanitation technologies. * * Dry sanitation | * Wet sanitation| * A dry toilet differs from a flush toilet (water closet) in that it does not need water. Excreta are collected directly beneath the seat in a shallow pit, container, chamber, such as the bucket system. Confusion must cleared between the systems especially latrine system which is constructed on a deep pit. Dry toilets ranges include a squatting plate or pedestal, with a smooth finished surface and is often utilised in limited area to minimise soiling. | * These are the conventional full flush system with sewers and waste water treatment plants, full flush systems with septic tank and small bore sewers, and the full flush systems with shallow sewerage. With septic tanks will significantly reduce operating costs, while the third system shallow sewers will significantly reduce the capital costs. The advantages of this group of toilets are that they operate as full flush toilets, can accommodate grey water disposal, and are well suited to densely populated areas where the plot sizes are insufficient to treat and drain household wastes. | * Objective 3 – Selection of the suitable option The suitable option was based on the advantages and disadvantages on the interview and the cost of the technology by the manufacture. The selected option is also based on the manufacture’s specification which used on site by the municipality and the budget allocated to the MO for that particular region. Advantages of On-site sanitation| Disadvantages of On-site sanitation| The system must be simple to construct, operate and maintain| This system is not suitable for substrata with hard rock and high water table conditions. | Installation should be less expensive and maintenance the same| The is a high possibility of pathogens contaminating the groundwater| Pollution of water surface should be eliminated| In highly densely populated urban areas such as informal settlements crucial groundwater resources can get contaminated. | Semi Structured Interviews Semi structured interviews were conducted to collect data from users to obtain the users views on sanitation technologies and the type of service the municipality is rendering. Users were asked questions on sanitation situations, technology selection, performance of facilities, appropriateness of the technologies, operational and maintenance of the facilities. A total of twelve (12) interviews were conducted. See (Appendix A) for the questionnaire template. Table 1 shows the distribution of the interviews conducted. Area| No. of interviews| Gugulethu| 4| Khayelitsha| 4| Nyanga| 4| TOTAL| 12| Table 1Distribution of interviews The questionnaires were administered on site with the users of the selected informal settlements. Administration of questionnaires was conducted in Xhosa since most of the users were comfortable speaking the language. Due to the lack of finding suitable donor’s to fund our survey only small sample was administered that actually uses the facilities. Discussion This section of study reflects the visual assessment that was conducted on site. A questioner was used to ascertain the level of service from the end user on the three (3) identified sites. A comparison of technologies that is being offered in informal settlements by the municipality is also reflected. The physical structure of the technologies being offered by manufactures to municipalities. Operational and maintenance cost implication from the manufacture and that cost is later transferred or felt by the municipality. Types of Sanitation Technologies Technology| Settlement Name| Suburb Name| Porta potiies| KTC| Nyanga| Chemical toilets| KTC| Nyanga| Conservancy toilets| Monwabisi Park| Khayelitsha| Pour flush toilets| Barcelona| Gugulethu| Pit Latrines| Monwabisi Park | Khayelitsha| MobiSan toilets. | KTC| Nyanga| Dry toilets A dry toilet differs from a flush toilet (water closet) in that it does not need water. Excreta are collected directly beneath the seat in a shallow pit, container, chamber, such as the bucket system. Confusion must cleared between the systems especially latrine system which is constructed on a deep pit. Dry toilets ranges include a squatting plate or pedestal, with a smooth finished surface and is often utilised in limited area to minimise soiling. ADVANTAGES| COST| DISADVANTAGES| No water required for flushing| Capital: R2000 – R 3500. 00 which can increase where soils not suited to drainage. | The toilet has to be cleaned without using much water. | Easy to construct with local material| Operating: R150 – R300 per annum where subsoil drainage is available| Collected excreta has to be carefully handled, excreta contains pathogens| May be used indoors| | Excreta have to be removed frequently to avoid smells, especially if the toilets are indoors| MobiSan (Mobile Sanitation) MobiSan (Mobile Sanitation) system in many ways has many advantages over existing dry systems. Below is a list of those advantages; MobiSan Advantages| MobiSan Disadvantages| The MobiSan system is an independent and self-contained system and has been proven that the system does not affect ground water at all. Faeces and urine are stored separately in the MobiSan. Urine is channelled away and the faeces fall into a ventilated chamber. The construction of the system is such that a handle on the outside of the cabin allows the solid waste to be stirred. The steering speeds up the drying of the excrement. The excrement is then channelled into a second component where this drying process is repeated again. The end product is dried up, it is pathogen-free manure that can be safely used to fertilise local vegetable gardens within the communities in informal settlements. This system lends itself as a more aesthetic and hygienic option for residents in informal settlements. | The technology provided is prone to vandalism and becomes full within a short period. Operating costs are very high. | Conservancy tank ADVANTAGES| COST| DISADVANTAGES| Waste is flushed into the tank where it is contained in isolation from the surrounding environment. | Capital: R2000 – R 5000. 00 depending on top structure and tank volume| Becomes full if domestic wastewater levels are high. | Easy to construct with local material| Operating: R 550. 00 per household and emptying cost estimated at R181 per tank. The tank is emptied on average 3 times per year| Emptying cost over the lifespan of the technology is quite high. | VIP (Ventilated Improved Pit) ADVANTAGES| COST| DISADVANTAGES| Applicable in rock terrain| Capital: R2500 – R 4500. 0Depending on householder input. | . Collected excreta has to be carefully handled, excreta contains pathogens| Does not require deep excavation| Operating: R35 – R135 every 2 years. | Prone to smells. | On-site Sanitation On-site sanitation has certain requirements, which need to be investigated before adopting the system. †¢The system must have adequate space for locating toilets and le ach pits. †¢The designated site must have porous subsoil to absorb liquid content of excreta and †¢The groundwater depth should be greater than 1,5m from ground level. ADVANTAGES OF On-site sanitation| DISADVANTAGES OF On-site sanitation| The system must be simple to construct, operate and maintain| This system is not suitable for substrata with hard rock and high water table conditions. | Installation should be less expensive and maintenance the same| The is a high possibility of pathogens contaminating the groundwater| Pollution of water surface should be eliminated| In highly densely populated urban areas such as informal settlements crucial groundwater resources can get contaminated. | Pour flush slabs Pour flush slabs (squatting pans) are designed with a U-shaped facility which s partly filled with water under slab. The design which is U overcomes problems such as flies, mosquitoes’ and odour by serving as a water seal. After usage, excreta are manually flushed by pouring water into the pan with a scoop. The amount is about 1 to 4 litres of water which is required for each flush. The amount of water depends mainly on the design of the f acility and the U-trap. This type of toilet can be made from plastic and ceramic, or from galvanized sheet metal . ADVANTAGES| COST| DISADVANTAGES| High level of convenience for the user| Capital: R 2000- R 3500 which can increase where soils are not well suited to drainage. Blockages occur a lot within these systems| The design reduces the need to handle fresh excreta. | Operating: R 150 – R 300 per annum where subsoil drainage is available| Requires small amounts of water for flushing| Can be used indoors| | Limited emptying service. | Communal or shared technologies In areas where there is not enough space, the sharing of latrines between several families is a useful solution. The common situation is where groups of households or small communal areas have latrines to be used by all the families. The ownership of the latrines generally belongs to one of the houses, the owner of all the houses, or else ownership is shared between the households. The costs of pit emptying and other repairs is often included in the rent, causing problems when the owner does not live there, or the residents must collaborate to clean the latrine and collect money to get it emptied when necessary. This is a very widespread practice. Communal of blocks of latrines are located in a public area, How to cite Comparisim of Sanitation Facilities Within Informal Settlements, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Who Is Anna Hazare free essay sample

He once contemplated suicide and even wrote a two-page essay on why he wanted to end his life. Anna Hazare was not driven to such a pass by circumstances. He wanted to live no more because he was frustrated with life and wanted an answer to the purpose of human existence. The story goes that one day at the New Delhi Railway Station, he chanced upon a book on Swami Vivekananda. Drawn by Vivekanandas photograph, he is quoted as saying that he read the book and found his answer that the motive of his life lay in service to his fellow humans. Today, Anna Hazare is the face of Indias fight against corruption. He has taken that fight to the corridors of power and challenged the government at the highest level. People, the common man and well-known personalities alike, are supporting him in the hundreds swelling to the thousands. We will write a custom essay sample on Who Is Anna Hazare? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page For Anna Hazare, it is another battle. And he has fought quite a few, Including some as a soldier for 15 years in Indian Army. He enlisted after the 1962 Indo-China war when the government exhorted young men to join the Army. In 1978, he took voluntary retirement from the 9th Maratha Battalion and returned home to Ralegaon Siddhi, a village in Maharashtras drought-prone Ahmadnagar. He was 39 years old. He found farmers back home struggling for survival and their suffering would prompt him to pioneer rainwater conservation that put his little hamlet on the international map as a model village. The villagers revere him. Thakaram Raut, a school teacher in Ralegaon Siddhi says, Thanks to Annas agitations, we got a school, we got electricity, we got development schemes for farmers. Anna Hazares fight against corruption began here. He fought first against corruption that was blocking growth in rural India. His organization the Bhrashtachar Virodhi Jan Andolan (Peoples movement against Corruption). His tool of protest hunger strikes. And his prime target politicians. Maharashtra stalwarts like Sharad Pawar and Bal Thackeray have often called his style of agitation nothing short of blackmail. But his weapon is potent. In 1995-96, he forced the Sena-BJP government in Maharashtra to drop two corrupt Cabinet Ministers. In 2003, he forced the Congress-Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) state government to set up an investigation against four ministers. In April this year, four days of fasting brought thousands of people out in support of his crusade against corruption. They also made the government realise it could not be dismissive about Anna Hazare and his mass appeal. His relationship with the UPA government continues to be uneasy. The truce of April was short-lived. An exercise to set up a joint committee made up of equal numbers of government representatives and civil society activists, including Anna Hazare came to naught when the two sides failed to agree and drafted two different Lok Pal Bills. The government has brought its version in Parliament and Team Anna is livid. The Gandhian is soldiering on. From one battle to another in his war against corruption. He fought from the front to have Right to Information (RTI) implemented. He is now fighting for the implementation of the Jan Lokpal Bill, the anti-corruption bill drafted by his team of crusaders. This year, more than 30 years after Anna Hazare started his crusade, as the 74-year-old plans a second hunger strike in Delhi against large-scale corruption at the national level. Nothing really has changed except the scale of his battle. Read more at: http://www. ndtv. com/article/india/who-is-anna-hazare-96883cp

Monday, March 30, 2020

Marijuana Essays (111 words) - Cannabis, Drugs In The United States

Marijuana I think that the presidant should legalize the use of marijuana. If they are going to let some people smoke it and not others then that is biass and i do not appricate it very much. I am not a smoker of marijuana but i have many friends who do smoke it and they all do better in school then i do. I will not start smoking but all i am saying is that it doen't not hurt people who smoke it unless they are going to overdose then they are just plan stupid. This is my essay on what the governmaent should do on the trouble they are having with marijuana Bibliography: Emma's Head

Saturday, March 7, 2020

The Hoxton Creeper Essays

The Hoxton Creeper Essays The Hoxton Creeper Paper The Hoxton Creeper Paper I am going to review Sherlock Holmes and the two films starring Basil Rathbone in the role of being Holmes. In English the two films I have watched recently are: The Pearl of Death and The Scarlet Claw. I enjoyed the film: The Pearl of Death because it is based upon the story The Adventure of the Six Napoleons. The film was made in 1944 in Hollywood, and is updated to the 1940s London in the Blitz. Sherlock Holmes is in disguise very often. He looks realistic to the person he is imitating and there is no recognition of his original form. The unique feature in the film is the introduction of the Hoxton Creeper. In the story the villain is Beppo but we see Rando Hatton performing as the Hoxton Creeper in the film. Holmes calls the Hoxton Creeper a monster with the chest of a buffalo and the arms of a gorilla. This is an exciting way to describe the Creeper this makes us want to see what the Creeper looks like, and when we see him we are not disappointed. The Creeper adds an excellent dimension to the story. He always appears in shadowy places and he is an enormous actor who suffers from acromegaly. This is a progressive glandular deformity which causes enlargement of the extremities. This makes the film more deadly. The Hoxton Creepers face is only seen at the end of the film he moves in silhouette through all the scenes. This is good positioning of the camera. This creates hesitancy. Our teacher said the film was horrifying and it gave him nightmares when he was a boy. These days films are much more graphic and give many watchers more of a shock. The Creeper goes on to break the backs of people who own a bust of Napoleon, because in one of the busts is hidden the famous Borgia pearl. He smashes the bust and other plates to cover up what he is hoping to find. Rondo Hatton spent his formative years in Tampa, Florida. Once he graduated from his High school, he fought in World War 1. This led to him being gassed in 1917 and his health deteriorated. Hatton worked as a newspaper reporter. He was later noticed for the film industry in the mid 1930s and he realized he had the potential of himself featuring in Hollywood films. He soon started working in the early 1940s for Universal Horror Films. Here is a picture of ugly Rondo Hatton. Disguise is awesome throughout the film. Sherlock Holmes uses disguise, so do several of the criminals.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Cross Cultural Health Perspectives Personal Statement

Cross Cultural Health Perspectives - Personal Statement Example Q1- Even "objectively measured clinical outcomes" may be erroneous when there is a lack of cross-cultural understanding. Apart from attitudinal differences between the patient and the care provider leading to miscommunication, there could be 'real' differences like some conditions/immunities being more prevalent among some groups, and even differing responses to medication. Q 4 - Even a "conscientious" care-provider cannot eliminate all prejudice or false assumptions about other groups of people, as many of these may be deeply rooted-in his/her subconscious. Being aware of this enables me to question my assumptions, accept that I am prone to error, and retain a degree of flexibility to correct myself when the evidence points out that I may have culturally stereotyped a patient at any time. Q 5- When noting medical history where a communication barrier exists, yes or no answers are least useful (response a). It is possible that when the questions are asked, some important aspect may be ignored. My mistake in this question happened due to inattention. I gave the response for the 'most useful', instead for 'least useful'. The lesson for my in this is that I should be paying more attention, in general, when I do a task-whether reading something or listening to a patient. Lesson taken! Q 6 - The least useful technique when tackling a patient's beliefs about treatment is to tell the patient that his/her belief is false, even if this is done in a gentle manner (resp b), because beliefs could be deeply entrenched. I was unable to identify this, while doing the quiz. Q 13- Japanese men, after migration to the US, retain a lower susceptibility to coronary heart disease than the general population (resp b)-a fact which I now know. Facts like these, based on research studies, can be accessed by more study and reading. Q15 - Immigrants who go to traditional healers do not keep away from Western medicine (resp b-false) Q 17- A smile could express worry or dis-satisfaction in some cultures. (resp a) It is useful to know this, a fact which seems strange at first, but so necessary for a care provider to know so that diagnosis is correctly done. All the other responses (16 in number, as earlier mentioned) were correct. In order to maintain cultural competence-both to avoid the deficiencies as revealed in my quiz answers, as well as to strengthen my correct perceptions-I have to keep working at developing more empathy, enhance listening skills, retain openness of mind, and improve my information base by keeping myself updated about various research studies regarding health indicators of different cultural groups. Works Cited Hunt, Linda Beyond Cultural Competence in The Park Ridge Centre for Health, Faith and Ethics, , retrieved 30th Nov, 2008 The Provider's Guide to Quality and Culture , retrieved 30th

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Early Cycladic female sculptures Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Early Cycladic female sculptures - Essay Example According to Fitton, this kind of art existed in Crete, in addition to Greece’s mainland. The sculptures, at first were said to have a religious meaning and mostly represented either a goddess or a god, but in reality, they simply represented femaleness. It is said that they represented the great mother, goddess of fertility. This was very evident from the appearance of the sculptures. They mostly had a female shape with folded arms across the abdomen. They had a closed set of legs with dangling feet over the surface on which they were set to stand. A research by Fitton indicates that these sculptures were mostly found in tombs and graves thus indicating that they were mostly used in funeral rituals (Fitton 22). This is a clear indication that they might have been used to represent past female legends and important personalities. The most common of the sculptures, one of a lady playing a harp in a sitting position, shows that the Cycladic people adored music and thus a female who was talented in music was considered a legend. Other familiar sculptures are of a lady playing a flute and that of a female folding hand (Christos 69). The fact that these sculptures were made from hard marble material rather that some soft material shows that these figures were made to live for centuries and thus were so important to the people who curved them (Christos 49). They represented the dead family members and the heroes in the community. The figures are said to have no facial features and clothing. They mostly represented a naked female body. The feet were mostly made to stand on tiptoe, and the head and waist to be inclined backwards (Fitton 72). Fitton state that the other facial features were added in terms of paint. They were painted to show other features such as eyes, ears, hair, mouth, and scars if the owner had any. The figures also had curves put in the right way and correct proportions. This shows that skilled artists made them. According to Fitton, some scu lptures show some evidence that the same person made them. He argues that the measurement and textures of the sculptures seem to be the same and exact. He says that it is not easy for different artists to produce the same and exact sculptures. In addition to this, traces of red pigments were observed on the front and the back of the sculptures. This was noticed mainly on the early Cycladic works of art and is a show that the surface of the sculpture shows how important the sculpture is. The importance of a sculpture could be easily noticed from the texture of the surface. It could also be noticed from the color painted on the surface. This is seen to be a good feature as it helped strangers to identify the historical legends in a community (Fitton 21). The sculptures are also seen to be made to show the character and power of a person. A sculpture of a female leader was noticed to have strong muscle on hands, barely seen breasts, strong hips and downward pointing toes with highly co nvex soles (Fitton 142). This showed her exceptional command as a leader. It is also said that such sculptures were brightly painted. Such sculptures have also shown evidence that they were repaired over time. They had patches of additional pieces of marble. This shows the importance these sculptures had to the community. Some sculptures were extracted from graves in full while others were extracted in pieces. The purpose of burying the sculptures as full or broken is not

Monday, January 27, 2020

Definition And Scope Of Relationship Marketing Marketing Essay

Definition And Scope Of Relationship Marketing Marketing Essay This chapter aims to evaluate the theoretical opinions of different theorist towards relationship marketing (RM) based on the objectives of determining the definition and scope of RM as well as understanding the different determinants and strategies used in RM and understanding current academic and industrial views and opinions on the values and effectiveness of RM. 2.1 Definition and scope of Relationship Marketing Relationship Marketing (RM) has been defined by various theorists and each has given their respective viewpoints about RM. In order to simplify and understand RM, an analysis by Palmatier (2008) of some well-known definitions by various theorists is illustrated to narrow down and obtain the essence of what is RM. The analysis is based on two key aspects found in RM (e.g. Gronroos 1997; Sheth and Parvatiyar 2000). The first aspect deals with strategies across stages of the relationship lifecycle and thereby suggests that a relationship is a process that develops over time through typical strategies (Dwyer and Oh 1987; Wilson 1995). The second aspect is the scope of RM activities; as some definitions only include customer relationships, and others include relationships with different stakeholders such as internal departments, competitors, customers and suppliers. The table below illustrates the common RM definitions by different theorists and identifies the stages the respective defini tions cover as well as the scope of the definition. Definition Stages/ Strategies Scope Attract/ Create/ Establish Enhance/ Develop Maintain Customers only Stakeholders Attracting, maintaining, and enhancing customer relationships. Berry (1983, p. 25) RM refers to all marketing activities directed toward establishing, developing, and maintaining successful relational connections. Morgan and Hunt (1994, p. 22) To establish, maintain, enhance relationships with customers and other stakeholders, at a profit, so that the objectives of all parties involved are met, where this is done by mutual exchange and fulfillment of promises. Gronroos (1997, p. 407) Based on synthesis of 26 definitions of RM: organization engaged in proactively creating, developing and maintaining committed, interactive and profitable exchanges with selected customers [partners] over time. Harker (1999,p. 16) RM is the ongoing process of engaging in cooperative and collaborative activities and programs with immediate and end-user customers to create and enhance mutual economic value at reduced cost. Sheth and Parvatiyar (2000,p. 9) RM is a philosophy of doing business, a strategic orientation that focuses on keeping and improving current customers, rather than acquiring new customers. Zeithaml and Bitner (2000) As illustrated above in the table all definitions excluding Sheths and Parvatiyars have covered all the relationship lifecycle stages in their respective definitions of RM which are:- Establishing, is the stage of RM or marketing process of advertising and attracting new customers towards a brand or product, Little Marandi (2003). Enhancing is the process differentiating from competitors offerings where more attractive offers and benefits are offered to customers (e.g. sales and price drops), Coyles Gokey (2002). Maintaining is the extra effort taken by sellers to retain and ensure that their existing customers obtain continuous benefits from the product or service they have to offer (e.g. loyalty scemes), Morgan Hunt (1994). Morgan, Hunt and Gronroos have explained RM to cover the scope of not only customers but other stakeholders as well; however the scope of RM in this research study will only consider customers. Therefore the analysis of RM definition suggested for this research study is RM is a continuous marketing activity which involves establishing, enhancing and maintaining customers loyalty towards a certain product or service that is being offered by the seller involved. 2.1.1 Relationship Lifecycle The relationship lifecycle consists of the different stages (establishing, enhancing and maintaining) as aforementioned in the definitions of RM. Various RM theorists such as (Kotler, 2000; Jap Ganesan, 2000; White, 2000; Zineldin, 1996) illustrated the relationship lifecycle according to the respective stages and definitions of RM. Therefore the relationship lifecycle differs with additional stages in certain RM lifecycles by different theorists of RM (Little and Marandi, (2003: 69)). A suitable relationship lifecycle according to the agreeable definition of RM for this research study is illustrated below:- Figure 1 Relationship Lifecycle Source: Adapted from Little Marandi (2003) Relationship Marketing Management. The cycle above illustrates up to the stage of maintaining a customer relationship. However several definitions for example White (2000) Jap; Ganesan (2000) suggest that relationship lifecycle declines after the maintaining stage. Morgan Hunt (1994) argued that, due to carelessness in handling the relationship it may decline but there is also a possibility of the relationship between the buyer and seller remaining constant, in cases where customers are continuously rewarded for their loyalty towards a certain company or continue to perceive value, (Morgan and Hunt (1994:22); Little Marandi (2003:70)). 2.1.2 Understanding Perceived Value Baines, Fill and Page (2008) explains value is the customers estimate of the extent to which a product or service can satisfy their need. Customers determine a products value by considering alternative solutions and the costs associated with satisfying their need. For example if a customer is to purchase a shower gel, there will be many alternatives of purchase, however a customer will chose from a seller that provides additional value to its product, for example a 20% extra amount of the shower gel for the same price. Added value to a product such as, a good price, special offers, and good customer service will lead to high customer satisfaction, (Baines, Fill and Page (2008:672)). History of Relationship Marketing Research on the history of marketing suggest that marketing emerged in the beginning of the twentieth century, however there is no evidence as to when the theory of marketing actually emerged. During the industrial age, exchange occurred in the local markets, where farmers and craftspeople (producers) sold their products directly to end users. Producers represented both manufacturers and retailers, and embedded relationships between producers and consumers provided the trust and business norms necessary to conduct the transaction because few institutionalized protections existed, (Palmatier (2008:8)). Gronroos (1994) argues that RM is a paradigm shift in marketing from the previous concept of the marketing mix and the Four Ps of marketing (product, price, place place) which was introduced to the academic world in the 1950s by Neil Bordan. Groonroos also states that the marketing mix is a list of marketing variables that has become obsolete therefore the marketing academic occasionally offers additional Ps to the list, thus this proves that the marketing mix is very limited. Type of Model Theorist (Year) Scope 4Ps McCarthy (1960) Product, Price, Promotion, Place 5Ps Judd (1987) Product, Price, Promotion, Place, People 6Ps Kotler (1984) Product, Price, Promotion, Place, Political power, Public perspective 7Ps Booms Bitner (1981) Product, Price, Promotion, Place, Participants, Physical evidence, Process Source: Gummesson, E. (1994) Making Relationship Marketing Operational, International Journal of Service Industry Management. The changes in the marketing environment and the various factors that contributed to customer sophistication are; globalisation internationalisation of markets; continuous development of technology; increasing brand competitiveness among customers and fragmentation of media, Little Marandi, (2003). These factors have contributed a gap in the market which became a need for a new approach to retain customers, to gain their loyalty and to establish competitive approach. Therefore Gronroos (1994) states that RM can be said to be an evolved strategy to the marketing mix approach, which assists in obtaining sustainable competitive advantage and retain customers in the long run. However there is no evidence to when it was actually implemented but research by Palmatier (2008) suggest that RM emerged as a separate academic domain of marketing in the 1980s and it became more comprehensible in the 1990s from a historical perspective. Among those who were contributory in developing the concept of RM were Evert Gummesson at Stockholm University and Christian Gronroos at the Swedish School of Economics in the early 1980s (Gronroos (1994;4); Little Marandi (2003;11); Palmatier (2008;9). Effectiveness of Relationship Marketing Many theorists have researched on the subject and made different judgments on the effectiveness of RM, some of whom are Reichheld (1996) who argues that the smallest efforts in customer maintenance can increase company profit because it costs less to serve long-term customers; loyal customers will pay price premium as well as generate word-of-mouth recommendations to other potential customers. A study by Reinartz and Kumar (2000) claims that loyal customers cost less to serve and are usually willing to pay more for product varieties than non-loyal customers, as well as acted as word-of-mouth marketers for the company. While McKenna (1993) claims that long-term customer relationships helps gaining competitive advantage which leads to higher lifetime profit for firms. Correspondence of RM with other marketing concepts RM shares some similarities with other marketing concepts such as, customer relationship management (CRM) and brand equity. Williams (2006) defined CRM as an information industry term for software, and Internet capabilities that help an  enterprise  manage customer relationships in an organized way. While Payne Frow (2005) stated that CRM is a management approach that seeks to create, develop and enhance relationships with carefully targeted customers using the potential of information technology. Kotler Armstrong (2009) maintains that CRM involves building and maintaining profitable customer relationships by delivering superior customer value and satisfaction. It deals with all aspects of acquiring, keeping and growing customers. From the various definitions of CRM above Palmatier (2008) concludes that if RM is the skill of relationships, then CRM represents its application. Keller (1993) argues that brand equity represents different effects of brand knowledge on customer action, for example customers behave more favorably towards a product when they can identify the brand. While Rust, Lemon and Zeithaml (2004) maintain that brand equity is a product-centered concept that does not capture drivers of customer behavior completely. Although RM and branding activities similarly focus on building intangible customer assets that positively influence customer loyalty, purchase behaviors, or financial performance while reducing marketing costs, they differ fundamentally where branding focuses on products with extensions to firms whereas RM focusses on relationships and their extensions to firms. However the effect of brands and relationships on a customers attitude towards the firm is difficult to distinguish, Palmatier (2008). Strategies of Relationship Marketing A strategy is a senior managements plan of action with which the effort of the staff is coordinated, Waterman et al (1980). Little and Marandi (2003) argues that RM strategies assist to manage the assortment of the customer to ensure an even flow of profits in the long term, and to determine when relationships should be established, enhanced and maintained. As Groonroos (1996) points out, however, the essence of RM is in the organisations processes, rather than its planning. Little and Marandi (2003) illustrates the key strategies as follows; establishing relationships involves target marketing techniques and advertisement programmes that are able to communicate relevant value. It is also established by simplifying the service offer by giving clarity regarding the benefits and terms and conditions of payment and use as well as encouraging trial. Relationships with customers can be enhanced by differentiating among competitors offerings. Relationships are maintained by not neglecting existing and safeguarding the customers satisfaction with and trust in supplier. It is also done by communicating with customers for building successful long-term relationships, by fostering trust and creating customer satisfaction as well as rewarding loyalty as customers remain loyal for as long as the perceived benefits outweigh the perceived sacrifice. Determinants of RM Outcomes Several theorist have mentioned different determinants of lengthening the lifetime value of an existing customer, such as Olivers (1981) model of customer satisfaction suggests that quality of the product or service offered by the seller is one of the most essential to obtain customer satisfaction which will later attract the buyer to return and buy the same product again. Whereas Hennig-Thurau et al. (2002) proposes that loyalty benefits are essential to obtain customer long term relationship, as every giving expects a return, even customers expect their share of return after shopping from a particular seller. An example of a loyalty scheme is the loyalty card which helps hooking up customers to buy from a particular seller to obtain benefits such as discounts from that particular seller. Hennig-Thurau et al. also stated price, customer service and convenience as other factors that drive relationship marketing outcomes. The relationship between price and quality are parallel to each other. Customers are willing to pay extra to obtain better quality products, however customers naturally get attracted to lowest prices that offer a reasonable quality and quantity for the amount paid for. Another essential part of retaining an existing customer is during and after sale service. This gains customer trust and satisfaction as they are given the liberty and ease to exchange, return and obtain additional information about the product or service they purchased. Convenience created for customers such as a strategic location (nearby their housing arrears) and is accessible at any time makes customers to frequently return. Dibb et al. (2006) argues that CRM systems which uses technology that allows marketers to practice effective customer maintenance strategies by monitoring, rewarding and reminding them about goods and services, is a major factor for developing RM outcomes. Technology is also used to ease the process of buying for customers, for example, having an online site that allows customers to purchase, refund, review and complaint at anytime and anywhere and having self-service cashier machines at stores and etc. Humby et al. (2007) also recognize product range as a determinant because it influences daily and frequent business transactions, which also influences the convenience factor aforementioned. Outcomes of Relationship Marketing RM determinants that are applied in a certain company to eventually obtain outcomes that bring an overall increase in the profit margin of a company, Little and Marandi (2003). These outcomes are classified into two key main RM outcomes that lead to customer loyalty which are trust and commitment, Morgan Hunt (1994). Trust is defined as willingness to rely on an exchange partner in whom one has confidence, Rotter (1967). The literature on trust argues on the confidence of the buyer towards the seller which results from the firm believed to be reliable and has high integrity and is responsible for their actions, Morgan Hunt (1994). Commitment is the variable believed to be central in distinguishing social from economic exchange, Cook Emerson (1978). For a company to achieve commitment from a customer is the most challenging task, as customers are vulnerable towards better quality and price offered elsewhere. To be able to maintain a committed relationship with a customer a firm has to keep updated with attractive return benefits for customers to continuously shop from them, Little and Marandi (2003). The commitment and trust theory (Morgan Hunt, 1994) suggests that RM can be achieved if customer satisfaction is exceptionally high. Customer satisfaction is achieved when all the determinants of RM are applied and practiced well by the firm. Highly satisfied customers will increase customer loyalty as well as spread the word of mouth to their circle of communication which gives a high possibility of attracting new customers. Demographic factors influencing Relationship Marketing Demographic factors such as age, gender, income, location, occupation and education are used to target consumers for marketing purposes, Schmidt Spreng (1996). Consumer behavior differs by demographic factors as Gaurav (2008) argues that significant gender difference in the trust loyalty relationship shows that women are significantly more loyal than men at higher levels of trust. Klein and Ford, (2003) maintained that the age of consumers is positively linked with knowledge and experience, such that older consumers could be more committed than younger consumers. According to Kotler et al. (2009) place or location of a business entity influences the type of target customers it attracts as well as the convenience it delivers to the consumers. Aforementioned demographic factors, such as gender, age and place are clearly linked to RM and therefore are used for this study. Criticism of Relationship Marketing Although there are many marketing theorist supporting the RM concept, however the subject is not without its critics. Blois (1998) has criticized RM by stating that developing a relationship inevitably results in some loss of control over matters such as resources, activities and intentions. Blois continues his argument by stating that a relationship is subject to continuous change, with an uncertain future which is determined by its history, current events and the parties expectations of future events. Other than that effort is required to build and maintain a relationship. This can be viewed as an investment and a maintenance cost. Moreover there is always a need to prioritize the use of limited resources and, hence, it may not be possible to pursue all of the individually attractive opportunities. Additionally, some relationships may be irreconcilable with an existing relationship. Reinartz Kumar (2005) adds that although some companies are happy with the results of their RM prog rams, yet they are unable to identify precisely the factors that explain such success, Summary The literature review enclosed different definitions of RM by various theorists which all proposed three different stages of RM which are establishing, enhancing and maintaining relationships; and the scope of RM which focuses upon stakeholders or customers only, however this analysis will only take customers into consideration. It then continued to discuss on the strategies used by RM which explains tactics to manage the relationship across the different stages of RM aforementioned, which are establishing, enhancing and maintaining relationships. It also includes view and opinions of different theorists regarding the effectiveness of RM. Followed by the views of theorists about the determinants of RM which lead to a discussion on several theorists views and opinions on how a seller-customer relationship is build. In order to test the opinions of the theorists between the relationship of RM determinants, customer satisfaction and word or mouth marketers four hypotheses are drawn out which are illustrated in Figure 2. An overview of the literature review is summarized in Figure 3. Figure 2 Hypotheses drawn from RM statements by theorists Figure 3 Process of Relationship Marketing The effectiveness and values of RM were further elaborated by discussing the relationship lifecycle and customers perceived value which explained the criteria of RM as well as the importance of having it and how do customers perceive it. Although some theorists claimed it as effective others such as Blois condemned the effectiveness of RM.